Bibliography


Bibliography
   This bibliography is divided into the following categories, with subheadings
   relevant to the thematic concentration of the material.
   I. Bibliographies, Bibliographical Studies, and Reference Works
   II. Scholarly Periodicals
   III. Newspapers and General Periodicals
   IV. General Studies of the History of Austria and the History of the
   Habsburg Empire
   V. The History of Austria from Antiquity to 1273
   VI. The History of Austria from 1273 to 1519
   VII. The History of Austria from 1519 to 1789
   VIII. The History of Austria from 1789 to 1867
   IX. The History of Austria from 1867 to 1918
   X. The History of Austria from 1918 to 1945
   XI. The History of Austria from 1945 to the Present
   The literature here, as in the dictionary as a whole, is for readers and speakers of English who want a basic guide to the history of Austria. The selection represents only a fraction of the material available in a variety of other European languages, especially German, which has increased vastly since the first edition of this work appeared in 1999.
   For systematic guidance to further reading, consult the relevant bibliographical suggestions in section I. The Österreichische Historische Bibliographie/ Austrian Historical Bibliography, which covers historical literature published in Austria only and is primarily of interest to scholars, can be found at www.uniklu.ac.at/groups/oehb/oehbquery. The HABSBURG website, although far from exhaustive, offers a quick picture of the current literature that it receives and very thorough reviews. It is most easily accessed through the links provided by the Center for Austrian Studies at the University of Minnesota at www.cas.umn.edu. The center also publishes a lively series, Working Papers in Austrian Studies. Titles appear on the center’s website.
   The Mitteilungen des Instituts für österreichische Geschichtsforschung also tracks work done in the field very closely, but appears irregularly. The 10-volume Österreichische Geschichte, a collaborative effort that has been appearing since 1995, includes excellent scholarly bibliographies at the end of all chapters. The Geschichte der Habsburger Monarchie 18481918, a topically organized multivolume work, presents essential literature for this crucial phase of Austrian history and the history of Central Europe generally. There is an exhaustive list of reading and sources for the history of Vienna in Felix Czeike’s five-volume Historisches Lexikon Wiens. Readers should also consult Peter Csendes’s Historical Dictionary of Vienna (1999) in the Scarecrow Press series of historical dictionaries on the world’s cities.
   The Center for Austrian Culture and Commerce at the University of New Orleans (www.centeraustria.org) publishes Studies in Austrian and Central European Studies and Contemporary Austrian Studies, both of which focus on the history and affairs of modern Austria. Major American research libraries such as the New York Public Library and the libraries of the University of Chicago, Columbia University, Harvard University, the University of California at Berkeley, and the University of Minnesota also have extensive collections in Austrian history.
   Austria’s history also crosses the path of many other countries. Highly relevant are Wayne C. Thompson, Susan L. Thompson, and Juliet S. Thompson, Historical Dictionary of Germany (1994) in the European Historical Dictionary series of Scarecrow Press, along with Angel Smith, Historical Dictionary of Spain (1996) (2nd ed. forthcoming 2008) and Arend H. Huussen Jr., Historical Dictionary of the Netherlands 2nd ed. (2007). Bibliographical references to books about the non-Austrian lands of the former Habsburg Empire have been limited to topics crucial to the history of the empire or that critically affected developments in the Austrian territories. Those wishing to pursue research on the several non-German peoples of the erstwhile multinational monarchy should also consult the relevant volumes in the Scarecrow European series: Ante Cuvalo, Historical Dictionary of Bosnia and Herzegovina 2nd ed. (2007); Jiři Hochmann, Historical Dictionary of the Czech State (1998); Zeljan Suster, Historical Dictionary of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1998); George Sanford and Adriana Gozdecka-Sanford, Historical Dictionary of Poland 2nd ed.(2003); Robert Staellerts and Jeannine Laurens, Historical Dictionary of the Republic of Croatia (1995); Stanislaw J. Kirschbaum, Historical Dictionary of Slovakia (1989); and Leopoldina Plut-Pregelj and Carole Rogel, Historical Dictionary of Slovenia 2nd ed. (2007). Hungary, the joint partner of the Austro–Hungarian monarchy after 1867, has been covered by Steven Belá Vardy in the Historical Dictionary of Hungary (1997). Research in the history and culture of Austria is greatly facilitated by the availability of a wide variety of archives, documentary collections, and libraries within the country itself. Vienna alone has more than 700 libraries, special collections, and archives; there are many more scattered throughout the provinces that can be very useful, depending upon one’s scholarly interests. This essay deals with Vienna alone, and that only selectively. Readers are urged to consult a comprehensive online guide published by the Union of Austrian Libraries (Österreichische Bibliotheken Verband), with links to important archives at www.obvsg.at. Most frequented by professional historians are the various sites of the Austrian State Archives, which have four major divisions: the Court and State Archives (Haus-, Hof-, und Staatsarchiv), the Finance and Exchequer Archives (Finanz- und Hofkammerarchiv), the Administrative and Police Archives (Verwaltungsarchiv), and the Military Archives (Kriegsarchiv). All but the Court and State Archives are housed in the central state archives located in the Nottendorferstraße, which can be reached on the metro line 3.
   The subdivisions of the Austrian State Library (Österreichische Nationalbibliothek) are other major resources. Aside from its printed holdings and an enormous manuscript collection, drawn from all over the world, the library is the repository for important musical collections, including manuscripts; a papyrus collection; and a documentation center for Austrian history, politics, and general culture.
   For those concerned with the history of Vienna, the Museum of the City of Vienna (Wien Museum) documents the history of the city in all its aspects. The Archives of the City and Province of Vienna (Wiener Stadt- und Landesarchiv) has key holdings, along with a library and documentation center. It is particularly useful for those interested in the history of political parties in the city or in its social history. The Jewish Historical Museum of Vienna (Jüdisches Museum der Stadt Wien) is central to the study of the Jewish community in Vienna and in Austria as a whole.
   A number of other museums and centers have materials that bear on Austrian history. Military historians should certainly consult the holdings of the Military Museum (Herresgeschichtliches Museum). The “Adler” Heraldic and Genealogical Society (Heraldisch-Genealogische Gesellschaft “Adler”) is crucial for those who are pursuing family histories. The Socialist Party of Austria (SPÖ) and its predecessor, the Social Democratic Workers’ Party (SDAP) has a number of archives that contain materials important not only to the history of socialism in Austria but to related topics such as the women’s movement and environmental questions. Essential materials on the Catholic Christian Social movement are kept in the Karl von Vogelsang Institute for Research in the History of the Christian Democratic Movement (Karl von Vogelsang Institut zur Erforschung der Geschichte der christlichen Demokratie). The Vogelsang Institute holds the archives of the current Austrian People’s Party. For those interested in significant phases of Austrian history from during World War II to the present, the Documentary Archive of the Austrian Resistance (Dokumentationsarchiv der österreichischen Widerstandes) and the library of the Austrian Society for Contemporary History (Österreichische Gesellschaft für Zeitgeschichte) are essential. The latter is especially important for current affairs. The Vienna Museum Quarter has a wide variety of electronic resources available for the study of contemporary and modern art both in Austria and the world.
   Musicologists will find the archives of the Society of the Friends of Music (Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde in Wien) to be the richest collection of its kind in the world. Also useful, especially on 20th-century Austrian music, are the holdings of the Documentary Institute for Austrian Music (Institut für österreichische Musikdokumentation). Twentieth-century Austrian writing, as well as the work of modern authors from east central Europe, can be studied in the Documentary Center for Austrian Literature (Dokumentationsstelle für österreichische Literatur im Literaturhaus). The center also has significant holdings on the work of Austrian writers who went into exile before and during World War II. For those interested in Austrian handicrafts, including the development of the Wiener Werkstätte, the Austrian Museum for Applied Art (Österreichische Museum für angewandte Kunst) is essential.
   The following websites are particularly informative for people who plan to visit Austria or need up-to-date details about the country’s affairs: www.austria.org/content/view/53/77/ Austrian Embassy, Washington, D.C., and www.acfdc.org, Austrian Cultural Forum, New York City. Scholars should turn to www.cas.umn.edu/links/academic.html at the University of Minnesota Center for Austrian Studies. Researchers with a special interest in literature should also look at www.MALCA.org, the home page of the Modern Austrian Literature and Culture Association.
   Ten years have passed since the bibliography for the first edition of this dictionary was compiled, but in the world of English-language scholarship on the history of Austria, both as a constituent element of the Habsburg Empire and as a sovereign republic, massive gaps still remain. The history of the Austrian lands in the early, high, and late Middle Ages is all but terra incognita to Anglophonic historians. Although a couple of general accounts listed below do take a stab at an overview of the Austrian Middle Ages, they lack both the detail and the depth that are available to those who can handle the rich and often illuminating studies now available in German. The situation is only slightly better for the history of the Austrian lands in the early modern era from the 15th through the 17th centuries. Although there are now several able monographs on religious, social, and political history written in English on these regions, the literature is heavily focused on the history of the Habsburg monarchy, which took place all over continental Europe, rather than the dynasty’s Austrian holdings alone. Scholarly biographies of Habsburg rulers in English are now available, but they are no substitute for a synthesis of the history of the Austrian lands from the Renaissance to the Enlightenment. They are also often written for informed scholarly audiences and not the interested, but uninitiated, layperson. The volumes by Winkelbauer and Vocelka in the Österreichische Geschichte are an excellent place to begin one’s study of the period, and are written in a clear and straightforward German, but one must be prepared to read the works in that language. Two recent publications that will be especially helpful to an English-only reader are Elisabeth Lichtenberger, Austria: Society and Regions, a wide-ranging physical and demographic geography of Austria that brings into play the findings of several disciplines to explore the subject dynamically rather than from the more conventional perspective of static fact, and Steven Beller’s A Concise History of Austria. The latter is a rare and good faith effort in English to tie the imperial and postimperial experiences of the country together.
   The focus of Anglophonic historians, particularly in the United States, has shifted since the first edition of the Historical Dictionary of Austria appeared, from the troubled interaction of government and national communities to questions of factors that kept the monarchy together as long as it did and closer analysis of informal political, social, and especially economic relations that created a functional interdependency of the Habsburg peoples. The literature in this vein has been revealing, but has largely concentrated on traditional hot spots of ethnic relations in the monarchy, German–Czech interactions in the kingdom of Bohemia particularly. The interactions of the Austrian lands with non-Austrian provinces have received far less attention, though a notable and very important exception is Pieter Judson’s Guardians of the Nation: Activists on the Language Frontiers of Imperial Austria.
   Other historians who write in English have done serious, and often provocative, histories of the Habsburg Empire. Robin Okey’s The Habsburg Monarchy: From Enlightenment to Eclipse is more chronologically constrained but is thoughtful and interesting. Its annotated bibliography covers books and articles in several languages, but captures the important materials in English down to the time of publication. Andrew Wheatcroft’s The Habsburgs: Embodying Empire starts slowly, but is an informed and engaging, quasi-biographical introduction to the Habsburg dynasty, from the Middle Ages to the present. It is also beautifully illustrated.
   Older studies of the Habsburg monarchy that still remain useful are Robert Kann, A History of the Habsburg Empire 15261918; A. J. P. Taylor’s lively and readable The Habsburg Monarchy 18091918: A History of the Austrian Empire and Austria Hungary; and C. A. Macartney, The Habsburg Empire, 17901918. Alan Sked’s provocative The Decline and Fall of the Habsburg Empire, 18151918 has reappeared in a second edition and does a good job of introducing readers to historiographic questions about the monarchy.
   All of these works are, however, devoted to the last century and a half of the Habsburg Empire’s existence. For the preceding period, one can usefully consult Charles Ingrao, The Habsburg Monarchy 16181815, a very reliable presentation that is now in a second edition, and the less detailed Paula Sutter Fichtner, The Habsburg Empire, 14901848: Attributes of Empire. There is a comprehensive study of the Habsburg monarchy available in English in two volumes, Jean Bérenger’s A History of the Habsburg Empire, 12731700 and A History of the Habsburg Empire 17001918. Translated from a one-volume French original, it has the great virtue of containing far more material on the monarchy before the 18th century than do the previously mentioned works. The extensive bibliographical sections of each book are compiled with the English-speaking reader in mind. The second volume, however, is rather superficial, compared to the first, and both parts are unreliably translated.
   Barbara Jelavich’s Modern Austria. Empire and Republic 18151986 is still useful for the decades from 1918 to around 1980. It is both fair and accessible. For contemporary history, an English-language reader should consult Peter Thaler, The Ambivalence of Identity: The Austrian Experience of Nation-Building in a Modern Society, and Anton Pelinka, Austria: Out of the Shadow, both of which are written from an institutional and socioeconomic viewpoint and make for exceptionally interesting reading. Ernst Bruckmüller’s discursive The Austrian Nation is topically organized and presumes some prior general knowledge of Austrian history, but is very informative on social questions particularly.
   The English-only scholar will have the greatest trouble finding materials on Austria from the Middle Ages through the Renaissance (see sections V and VI). There is only one general survey, Alexander W.A. Leeper’s A History of Medieval Austria, a basic political narrative. Otto Brunner’s Land and Lordship: Structure of Governance in Medieval Austria comes far closer to meeting the modern standards taste for social history but is relatively limited in its reach. For the later Middle Ages through the Renaissance, Gerhard Benecke, Maximilian I 14591519; Thomas Brady, Turning Swiss: Cities and Empire, 14501550; Louise Cuyler, The Emperor Maximilian I and Music; Marie Tanner, The Last Descendant of Aeneas: The Habsburgs and the Mythic Image of the Emperor; and R. Po-chia Hsia, Trent 1475. Stories of a Ritual Murder give important social, political, and cultural insights. Nevertheless, none of these has the vast scope of the fivevolume work of Hermann Wiesflecker, Kaiser Maximilian I: Das Reich, Österreich und Europa an der Wende zur Neuzeit, nicely abridged to one volume as Maximilian I: Die Fundamente des habsburgischen Weltreiches. Even more fundamental are Alois Niederstätter’s Das Jahrhundert der Mitte: An der Wende vom Mittelalter zur Neuzeit and Die Herrschaft Österreich: Fürst und Land im Spätmittelalter.
   The period from the Protestant Reformation through the French Revolution offers more for those who read comfortably only in English. Charles Ingrao’s The Habsburg Monarchy 16181815 touches all important bases—cultural, political, economic, and social—and makes intelligent use of most of the important recent literature. Its coverage of the French Revolutionary era is somewhat brief. Ernst Wangerman’s The Austrian Achievement, 17001800 is equally sketchy here, but is still a very interesting and informative picture of the Austria of Maria Theresa and Joseph II. The illustrations will give a student a wonderful introduction to the Austrian Baroque. Of a different order is R. J. W. Evans, The Making of the Habsburg Monarchy, 15501700. Although the title promises a general treatment of the subject, the book is a highly detailed study of the political and religious foundations of the empire. It argues that culture, particularly CounterReformation Catholic culture, became the unifying element of the empire, a thesis to which all scholars pay close attention. The work is, however, heavy lifting for the novice. The same can be said of his earlier Rudolph II and His World: A Study in Intellectual History, 15761612. Although it is an original and stimulating picture of late Renaissance thought in central Europe, it is not for beginners. Those looking into Habsburg court culture for the first time are wiser to begin with Hugh Trevor-Roper, Princes and Artists: Patronage and Ideology at Four Habsburg Courts, 15171633. A practical and eminently readable view of the impact of the Habsburg court on Austrian, and especially Viennese, society is John P. Spielman’s The City and the Crown.
   Scholars from the Anglo-Saxon world have made important contributions to the political history of this period. Very important is Derek Beales’s comprehensive Joseph II in two volumes. Two shorter but valuable biographies of Joseph and his mother, Empress Maria Theresa, are William McGill, Maria Theresa, and T. C. W. Blanning, Joseph II. Habsburg Enlightened absolutism was a product of the dynasty’s ministers. A significant study of one of the most important is Franz A .J. Szábo, Kaunitz and Enlightened Absolutism, 17331780. A major contribution in German, particularly for scholars, is Petr Mat’a and Thomas Winkelbauer, eds., Die Habsburgermonarchie 1620 bis 1740: Leistungen und Grenzen des Absolutismusparadigmas.
   The 18th century ushered in an extended period of achievement in Austrian musical culture, and the modern literature in English on the topic is very rich. Modern critics still turn to Charles Rosen’s The Classical Style: Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven. More recently, however, musicologists have been working to situate composers in the cultural and social context of their times, and the results can be impressive. Robert Gutman’s Mozart: A Cultural Biography is a magisterial contribution to the genre. It is also fascinating to read. H. C. Robbins Landon’s Beethoven: His Life, Work, and World and his Mozart and Vienna should still be consulted. For the contemporary theater there is Bruce Alan Brown, Gluck and the French Theatre in Vienna. The plastic arts are less well covered in English, but Thomas daCosta Kaufmann, The Eloquent Artist: Essays on Art, Art Theory and Architecture, Sixteenth to Nineteenth Centuries provides authoritative background to the Habsburg patronage of art and architecture, which was crucial to Austria’s built environment and the holdings of today’s state museums. It is very well illustrated. Eric Garberson’s Eighteenth-Century Monastic Libraries in Southern Germany and Austria: Architecture and Decorations is unfortunately illustrated in black and white, but is a plainly written and most informative look at one of Austrian Catholicism’s most important visual art forms at its zenith.
   There are no satisfactory general studies in English for the period 1789–1867 in Austrian history. A welcome exception is Herman Freudenberger’s Lost Momentum: Austrian Economic Development, 1750s1830s. Although it tells a familiar tale of the zigzag nature of Austrian economic development, it conveys the individual, institutional, and social texture of early industrialization in the region without abandoning scholarly seriousness. More generally, readers are advised to consult the above-mentioned work by Alan Sked, who is especially good on the Revolutions of 1848 and their aftermath. The relevant sections of Robert Kann’s survey of the Habsburg monarchy, also discussed earlier, are also useful here. A valuable set of introductory essays, edited by Kinley Brauer and William Wright, is Austria in the Age of the French Revolution.
   The dominant figure of the age, at least according to conventional wisdom, was Prince Klemens Wenzel von Metternich, foreign minister, then chancellor, of Emperor Francis I. He has been the subject of two sound introductory biographies in English, Alan Milne’s Metternich and Alan Palmer’s Metternich. Francis himself, who played a central role in the policy making of his government, has had no English-language biographer since Walter C. Langsam, Francis the Good: The Education of an Emperor, 17681792. The book still merits attention, however. Those wishing to study the 1848 revolutions in greater detail should see R. John Rath, The Viennese Revolution of 1848, a detailed and extended narrative that has no peer in English.
   The culture of the era has been much better served in English. Once again, some of the most fruitful scholarship turns on placing major Austrian writers and composers in their sociocultural, political, and even economic milieus. Schubert’s Vienna, edited by Raymond Erickson, is a good place to start. Some of the essays are a trifle specialized for a beginner, but the more general ones are not, and all chapters end with useful suggestions for further reading. Alice M. Hanson, Musical Life in Biedermeier Vienna remains essential. Ernst Hilmar separates fact from legend in his Franz Schubert in His Time, and Elizabeth Norman McKay does a close reading of the psychosexual life of the composer in Franz Schubert: A Biography. The above-mentioned work by Landon on Beethoven also tells us much about music in the Biedermeier era. Two works that give the English-only reader a very good introduction to Austrian theatrical culture of the era are Simon Williams, German Comic Actors of the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries and W. Edgar Yates, Theatre in Vienna: A Critical History, 17761995. The latter has relatively little to say about the theatrical literature itself, but it is very good on the social and political environment in which the works were written. Michael Cherlin, Halina Filipowicz, and Richard L Rudolph, eds., The Great Tradition and Its Legacy: The Evolution of Dramatic and Musical Theater in Austria and Central Europe is no substitute for the general history of the Austrian theater still to be written in English. Nevertheless, it has very useful essays on the classical comic playwrights of the period. Dorothy Prohaska, Raimund and Vienna, is a rare and very fine treatment in English of one of the genre’s iconic figures. Donald Daviau, ed., Major Figures of Nineteenth-Century Austrian Literature covers some essential territory in solid and accessible essays. For the period from 1867 through to 1938, the English language scholarship on Austrian history and the history of the Habsburg monarchy is both extensive and accomplished. Once Great Britain and the United States found themselves involved in continental wars that began in 20th-century central and east central Europe, their academic interest in the region grew proportionately. An understandable concern in both countries with contemporary affairs produced especially impressive work on the background and outbreak of World War I and the history of National Socialism and its various branches.
   For a general introduction to the political history of the Habsburg Empire from 1867 to 1918, see John W. Mason, The Dissolution of the Austro Hungarian Empire, 18671918, which also has a useful documentary appendix. Paula Sutter Fichtner, The Habsburg Empire: From Dynasticism to Multinationalism covers much of the same ground in less detail, but with several documents that are translated for the first time into English and are useful in the classroom. The history of the monarchy in its final decades is closely tied to the reign of Emperor Franz Joseph, who has been the subject of several recent biographical treatments, all of which are readable introductions to larger problems. Among these are Jean Paul Bled, Franz Joseph; Stephen Beller, Francis Joseph, which is organized around subheadings; and Alan W. Palmer, Twilight of the Habsburgs: The Life and Times of Emperor Francis Joseph, which ranges significantly beyond the biographical.
   The nationality question has been a central concern of students of the Habsburg monarchy since its collapse in 1918. Current historiography now questions the importance of this issue to the exclusion of social and economic concerns, but it is still the focus of much scholarly attention. The writing in the field is largely monographic; Robert Kann’s The Multi-National Empire was unquestionably the most important effort in English to synthesize the issue. The East European Monographs series, published by Social Science Monographs, continues to bring out an extraordinarily large number of such studies, many of which are listed in section X. Volumes III.1 and III.2 of Die Habsburger Monarchie 18481918, edited by Adam Wandruszka and Peter Urbanitsch, are essential for a comprehensive treatment of the nationality question through World War I. A very thoughtful compilation of essays is The Habsburg Legacy: National Identity in Historical Perspective, volume 5 of the series Austrian Studies, edited by Ritchie Robertson and Edward Timms, which has contributed significantly to both the history of the Habsburg monarchy and of Austria generally. The new focus on the economic, social, and cultural history of the Austro Hungarian Empire has produced much important work. The debate over the economic development of the Habsburg state was opened by Alexander Gerschenkron in An Economic Spurt that Failed. He saw the process as essentially incomplete. David Good in The Economic Rise of the Habsburg Empire, 17501914 argues that the Austrian economy performed far more impressively. A related and very significant long-term issue is treated in John Komlos, The Habsburg Monarchy as a Customs Union: Economic Development in AustriaHungary in the Nineteenth Century. Closely attending upon the industrialization of the empire were social and political changes, both rural and urban. The appearance of mass political parties in Austria after 1867 has been studied widely but at different levels of intensity. John Boyer’s Political Radicalism in Late Imperial Vienna: Origins of the Christian Social Movement, 18481897 and Culture and Political Crisis in Vienna: Christian Socialism in Power, 18971918 cover the Christian Social movement and its impact exhaustively. Richard Geehr, Karl Lueger: Mayor of Fin de Siècle Vienna is a good introduction to a controversial, and very successful, Christian Social mayor. Hitler’s Vienna: A Dictator’s Apprenticeship, by Brigitte Hamann is also illuminating. The Austrian Social Democrats have yet to be studied comprehensively in English, nor are there good biographies of leading figures. A useful introduction to their thought is Tom Bottomore’s Austro-Marxism.
   Individual social issues are being examined ever more closely in English. Peter Pulzer’s The Rise of Political Anti-Semitism in Germany and Austria is still useful in a revised edition. Marcia Rosenblitt, The Jews of Vienna, 18671914: Assimilation and Identity and Robert S. Wistrich, The Jews of Vienna in the Age of Franz Joseph also have remained valuable. The very important question of education has received excellent quantitative analysis in Gary B. Cohen, Education and Middle Class Society in Imperial Austria, 18481918. Robert Wegs, Growing Up Working Class: Continuity and Change among Viennese Youth, 18901938 treats a neglected but important topic closely and sympathetically.
   But it is high thought and culture generally in late 19th-century Austria, particularly Vienna, that has commanded the most attention among scholars who write in English. For an encyclopedic treatment of Austrian thought there is William Johnston, The Austrian Mind: An Intellectual and Social History. Although written from a specific point of view—Johnston stresses the analytic rather than activist side of the Austrian intellectual tradition—the book is very informative and amply equipped with useful biographical details such as birth and death dates. Also helpful is Donald Daviau’s workmanlike anthology Major Figures of Turn-of-the Century Austrian Literature.
   The book that brought the fin de siècle Habsburg Empire to world attention was Carl Schorske’s Fin-de-Siècle Vienna: Politics and Culture. Structurally a collection of essays that Schorske had already published in various scholarly journals, the work explored what the author saw as the decline of political liberalism and the growing centrality of the irrational, expressed both in mass movements and aesthetic programs of the day. The book gave new stature to figures such as the painters Gustav Klimt and Egon Schiele, who had long been marginal to the European artistic canon, and to the applied arts, represented by such movements as the Wiener Werkstätte, which were all but forgotten by the 1950s. Schorske’s study also reawakened interest in the Jewish contribution to Austrian culture, the topic of such books as Denis Klein’s Jewish Origins of the Psychoanalytic Movement and Steven Beller’s Vienna and the Jews, 1867-1938: A Cultural History. All this scholarship was reinforced by a series of exhibitions at major museums in Paris, New York, and Vienna.
   Architectural historians examined the Vienna style of the late 19th century throughout all corners of the former Habsburg Monarchy, Eve Blau’s and Monika Platzer’s edited volume Planning the Great City: Modern Architecture in Central Europe 18901937 being both typical and among the first. Efforts to use the built environment of turn-of-the century Vienna as a mirror of social and political as well as aesthetic values continue to appear. Leslie Topp, Architecture and Truth in Fin-de-siècle Vienna is an exceptionally well-integrated example.
   Nevertheless, the critique and revision of the Schorske thesis, neatly encapsulated in Steven Beller, ed., Rethinking Vienna 1900, began fairly soon after his book was published and has become something of a cottage industry among academics. Historians have raised questions about Schorske’s analysis—his understanding of the term middle class and his evaluation of Jewish contributions to the culture of the era, along with the centrality of Sigmund Freud to his overall approach, have come in for some searching criticism. Beller has objected very sharply to Schorske’s weighting of Jewish influences. But the greatest reservations have been about the author’s approach to Austrian liberalism, which he regards as virtually aborted by the beginning of the 20th century. Peter Judson, Exclusive Revolutionaries: Liberal Politics, Social Experience, and National Identity in the Austrian Empire, 18481914; Deborah A. Coen, Vienna in the Age of Uncertainty: Science, Liberalism, and Private Life; and Malachi Haim Hacohen, Karl Popper, the Formative Years, 19021945: Politics and Philosophy in Interwar Vienna see a great deal of creative continuity in the Austrian liberal experience through the end of the Habsburg monarchy.
   The outbreak of World War I, which brought all of this to an end, is thoroughly but readably analyzed in Samuel R. Williamson Jr., AustriaHungary and the Origins of the First World War. The collapse of the monarchy in Vienna itself as a social and economic experience is well analyzed in Vienna and the Fall of the Habsburg Monarchy: Total War and Everyday Life in World War I, by Maureen Healy, who makes good use of personal testimonials in letters and memoirs.
   Francis L. Carsten’s The First Austrian Republic, 19181938 is a useful introduction to the history of the Austrian First Republic. Nevertheless, this story has until now interested historians in the Anglo-Saxon world largely for two reasons: first and foremost, its connection with the rise of Fascism and Nazism, and secondarily the programs of Austria’s Socialists, who used Vienna as something of a laboratory model for egalitarian communitarianism in the 1920s. The two issues intersected significantly, as we see in Anson Rabinbach’s The Crisis of Austrian Socialism: From Red Vienna to Civil War 19271934 and Helmut Gruber’s Red Vienna: Experiment in Working Class Culture 19191934. Charlie Jeffery’s Social Democracy in the Austrian Provinces: Beyond Red Vienna breaks a long tradition of viewing Austrian Socialism only from the Vienna standpoint. There are now two significant monographs on the intersection of aesthetics and politics: Eve Blau’s The Architecture of Red Vienna 19191934 and Robert Pyrah’s The Burgtheater and Austrian Identity: Theater and Cultural Politics in Vienna, 19181938. On the rise and effect of Fascism and authoritarianism generally, Carsten has published a very thorough monograph, Fascist Movements in Austria from Schönerer to Hitler. Bruce Pauley has written two key works on Austrian Nazism and anti-Semitism: Hitler and the Forgotten Nazis and From Prejudice to Persecution: A History of Austrian Anti-Semitism. Evan Bukey, Hitler’s Austria: Popular Sentiment in the Nazi Era, 19381945 stresses the wide support that the Hitler regime received in Austria. C. Earl Edmondson, The Heimwehr and Austrian Politics, 19181936 covers essential material. On the Christian Social Party, Alfred Diamant, Austrian Catholics and the First Republic, 19181934 remains useful, as does Ignaz Seipel: Christian Statesman in a Time of Crisis, by Klemens von Klemperer. The failure of the Viennese Creditanstalt Bank in 1931 contributed significantly to the worldwide economic crisis of the 1930s. This has been well covered in Aurel Schubert, The Credit-Anstalt Crisis of 1931. Essential background is in Edward März, Austrian Banking and Financial Policy: Creditanstalt at a Turning Point, 19121923. The problems of Austria’s literary intellectuals is thoughtfully covered in C. E. Williams, The Broken Eagle: The Politics of Austrian Literature from Empire to Anschluss. David Luft’s Eros and Inwardness in Vienna: Weininger, Musil, Doderer offers a stimulating discussion of literary life in interwar Austria. One way of resolving the perceived cultural dislocations of World War I is explored by Michael Steinberg in The Meaning of the Salzburg Festival: Austria as Theater and Ideology 18901938.
   Austria has decidedly not occupied center stage for historians in the Anglo Saxon world since 1945. Nevertheless, the country’s connection with Nazism and continued pockets of sympathy for its racial positions always generate interest, as shown in the controversy over former president Kurt Waldheim’s career during World War II. This is perhaps best addressed in English in Robert E. Herzstein’s Waldheim: The Missing Years and Richard Mitten’s The Politics of Antisemitic Prejudice: The Waldheim Phenomenon in Austria. The rise of a populist right wing in the country is provocatively analyzed by Lothar Höbelt, Defiant Populist: Jörg Haider and the Politics of Austria.
   Austria, which was one of the few areas in the world from which the Soviet Union withdrew, has been more closely studied for its Cold War connections. The conclusion of the Austrian State Treaty of 1955 and the Austrian policy of neutrality that accompanied it merited close attention. Donald R. Witnah and Edgar I. Erickson, The American Occupation of Austria: Planning and Early Years deals not only with its announced topic but with the Allied occupation generally. Audrey Kurth Cronin, Great Power Politics and the Struggle Over Austria, 19451955 provides essential coverage. Günter Bischof, Austria in the First Cold War, 19451955: The Leverage of the Weak stresses Austria’s active role in dealing with the occupying powers. Very useful for the study of Austria’s relationship with the European Community, which it joined in 1995, are various volumes listed in the Contemporary Austrian Studies series found in section IX. Still helpful on internal politics are two studies by Melanie Sully, A Contemporary History of Austria, which remains informative on the transformation of the social democratic movement, and Political Parties and Elections in Austria: The Search for Stability, which covers its topic solidly up to the time of publication. On cultural developments see Willy Riemer, ed., After Postmodernism: Austrian Literature and Film in Transition, which offers very broad coverage of these matters and has interviews with key players. One should also consult Katrin Kohl and Ritchie Robertson, eds., A History of Austrian Literature, 19182000. An interesting insight into questions of gender and Austrian society is Jews and Queers: Symptoms of Modernity in Late-Twentieth Century Vienna, by Matti Bunzl.
   I. BIBLIOGRAPHIES, BIBLIOGRAPHICAL STUDIES, AND REFERENCE WORKS
  Aigner, Wolfram. Austrian Law: A Survey. Linz: Trauner, 2006.
  The Austrian Financial Markets. Vienna: Austrian National Bank, 1994–. Annual.
  Austrian Foreign Policy Yearbook. Vienna: Federal Ministry for Foreign Affairs, 1988–. Annual.
  Austrian Foreign Trade. Annual supplement to Österreichs Außenwirtschaft. Vienna: Forschungsschwerpunkt Internationale Wirtschaft, 1998–2004, 2007–. Annual.
  Austrian Literature Online. Graz: Universitätsverlag, 2000.
  “The Austrian State Archives.” Austrian History Yearbook nos. 6/7 (1970 1971): 3–74.
  Buchhart, Helmut. Österreich in Bibliographie und Dokumentation. Vienna: Vereinigungösterreichischer Bibliothekare, 1986.
  Czeike, Felix. Das grosse Groner Wien Lexikon.Vienna: Molden, 1974.
  ———. Historisches Lexikon Wien. 5 vols. Vienna: Kremayer & Scheriau, 1992–2004.
  Dachs, Herbert, and Peter Gerlich, eds. Handbuch des politischen Systems Österreichs. Vienna: Manz, 1991.
  Eckman, Charles. Vienna’s Municipal Building Program, 19181934: A Bibliography. Monticello, Ill.: Vance Bibliographies, 1988.
  Endler, Franz. Vienna: A Guide to Its Music and Musicians. Translated by Leo Jecny. Portland, Ore.: Amadeus Press, 1989.
  Filler, Susan M. Gustav and Alma Mahler: A Guide to Research. 2nd ed. New York: Routledge, 2008.
  Gesamtverzeichnis österreichischer Dissertationen. Vienna: Verband der wissenschaftlichen Gesellschaften Österreichs, 1966–1984.
  Hardin, James N., and Donald C. Daviau, eds. Austrian Fiction Writers, 18751913. Detroit: Gale Research, 1989.
  Hamann, Brigitte, ed. Die Habsburger. Ein biographisches Lexikon. Munich: Piper, 1988.
  Hausmaninger, Herbert. The Austrian Legal System. 3rd ed. Vienna: Manz, 2003.
  Jessup, John J. Balkan Military History: A Bibliography. New York: Garland, 1986.
  Kaufmann, Thomas da Costa. Art and Architecture in Central Europe, 15501620: An Annotated Bibliography. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1988.
  Kleindel, Walter. Das grosse Buch der Österreicher: 4500 Personendarstellungen in Wort und Bild. Namen. Daten. Fakten. Vienna: Kremayer & Scheriau, 1987.
  ———. Österreich. Zahlen. Fakten. Daten. 5th ed. Salzburg: Andreas and Müller, 2004.
  Koller, Fritz. Das Salzburger Landesarchiv. Salzburg: Pustet, 1987.
  Krauss, Gottfried, ed. Musik in Österreich. Eine Chronik in Daten, Dokumenten, Essays und Bildern: Klassische Musik, Oper, Operette, Volksmusik, Unterhaltungsmusik,Avantgardemusik, Komponisten, Dirigenten, Virtuosen, Sänger, Musikstätten, Festspiele Instrumentenbau. Vienna: Brandstätter, 1989.
  Lukan, Walter, and Max Demeter Peyfuss. Ost-und Südost Sammlungen in Österreich: Verzeichnis der Bibliotheken, Institute, Archive und Museen. 2nd enlarged ed. Vienna: Verlag für schichte und Politik, 1990.
  Magocsi, Paul Robert. Historical Atlas of East Central Europe. 2nd ed. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2002.
  Malina, Peter, and Gustav Spann. Bibliographie zur österreichischen Zeitgeschichte, 19181985. Eine Auswahl. Vienna: Verlag für Geschichte und Politik, 1985.
  Österreich Lexikon. Edited by Richard Bamberger et al. 2 vols. Vienna: Verlagsgesellschaft Österreich-Lexikon. 1995. Available at www. aeiou.at.
  Österreichische Historische Bibliographie/Austrian Historical Bibliography. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Clio, 1967–. Available at www.onb.ac.at/katalogue/oesterreichische_bibliographie.htm.
  Österreichisches biographisches Lexikon. Vienna: Akademie der Wissenschaften. 1815–1950.
  Österreichisches Jahrbuch für Politik. Vienna: Federal Press Service. 1977–. Annual.
  Österreichisches Personenlexikon der ersten und zweiten Republik. Edited by Isabella Ackerl and Friedrich Weissensteiner. Vienna: Ueberreuter, 1992.
  Neue österreichische Biographie ab 1815. Vienna/Munich: Almathea. 1923–. Running series.
  Politisches Handbuch Österreichs. Vienna: Federal Ministry for Education, Science, and Art. 1945–, Annual.
  Presse-Handbuch. Vienna: Verband österreichischer Zeitungsherausgeber und Zeitungsverleger. 1985–. Annual.
  Roman, Eric. AustriaHungary and the Successor States: A Reference Guide from the Renaissance to the Present. New York: Facts on File, 2003.
  Salt, Denys. Austria. Oxford: Ariadne, 1986.
  Stock, Karl Franz, et al. Bibliographie osterreichischer Bibliographien, Sammelbiographien und Nachschlagwerke. Graz: K.F. Stock, 1977–.
  Uhlirz, Karl/Mathilde Uhlirz. Handbuch der Geschichte Österreich-Ungarns. Graz: Böhlau, 1963–.
  Zophy, Jonathan W. An Annotated Bibliography of the Holy Roman Empire. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1986.
   II. SCHOLARLY PERIODICALS
   Many of the following publications have current book reviews and bibliographical sections.
  Austrian History Yearbook. Minneapolis, Minn. 1965–, Annual.
  Austrian Studies. London. 1990–. Annual.
  Central European History. New York. 1968–. Quarterly.
  Der Donauraum. Vienna. 1960–. Quarterly.
  East European Quarterly. Boulder, Colo. 1967/1968–. Quarterly.
  Études danubiennes. Strasbourg. 1985–. Biannual.
  Historisches Jahrbuch der Stadt Linz. Linz. 1949–. Annual.
  Jahrbuch des Vereins für die Geschichte der Stadt Wien. Vienna. 1939–. Annual.
  Jahrbuch für die Geschichte des Protestantismus in Osterreich. Vienna. 1884–. Annual.
  Jahrbuch für Landeskunde von Niederösterreich. Vienna. 1929–. Annual.
  Jahrbuch für österreichische Kulturgeschichte. Eisenstadt. 1973/1974–. Annual.
  Mitteilungen der Gesellschaft für Salzburger Landeskunde. Salzburg. 1861. Irregular.
  Mitteilungen des Instituts für österreichische Geschichtsforschung. Vienna. 1880–. Annual.
  Mitteilungen des oberösterreichischen Landesarchivs. Linz. 1950–. Irregular.
  Mitteilungen des österreichischen Staatsarchivs. Horn. 1948–. Annual.
  Modern Austrian Literature. Binghamton, N.Y. 1968–. Annual.
  Oberösterreichische Heimatblätter. Linz. 1947–. Biannual.
  Österreich in Geschichte und Literatur. Vienna. 1957–. Bimonthly.
  Österreichische Zeitschrift für Geschichtswissenschaften. Vienna. 1990–. Quarterly.
  Österreichische Zeitschrift für Kunst und Denkmalpflege. Vienna. 1947–, Quarterly.
  Österreichische Zeitschrift für Politikwissenschaft. Vienna. 1971–. Quarterly.
  Österreichische Zeitschrift für Volkskunde. Vienna. 1895–. Quarterly.
  Südtirol in Wort und Bild. Innsbruck. 1957–. Quarterly.
  Tiroler Heimat. Innsbruck. 1936–. Annual.
  Tiroler Heimatblätter. Innsbruck. 1923–. Quarterly.
  Unsere Heimat. Zeitschrift für Landeskunde von Niederösterreich. Vienna. 1929–. Quarterly.
  Wiener Geschichtsblätter. Vienna. 1946–. Quarterly.
  Wiener Jahrbuch für Kunstgeschichte. Vienna. 1921–. Annual.
  Zeitschrift des historischen Vereines für Steiermark. Graz. 1850–. Annual.
   III. NEWSPAPERS AND GENERAL PERIODICALS
  Format. 1998–.
  Die Kleine Zeitung. 1904–.
  Der Kurier. 1954–.
  Die Neue Kronen Zeitung. 1959–.
  News. 1992–.
  Österreich. 2006–.
  Die Presse. 1946–.
  Profil. 1970–.
  Salzburger Nachrichten. 1945–.
  Der Standard. 1998–.
  Wiener Zeitung. 1703–.
  Woman. 2001–.
   IV. GENERAL STUDIES
  Ableitinger, Alfred, ed. Steiermark. Vienna: Böhlau, 2002.
  Beller, Steven. A Concise History of Austria. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006.
  Bérenger, Jean. A History of the Habsburg Empire, 12731700. Translated by C. A. Simpson. London: Longman, 1994.
  ———. A History of the Habsburg Empire, 17001918. Translated by C. M. Simpson. White Plains, N.Y.: Longman, 1997.
  Bruckmüller, Ernst. The Austrian Nation. Translated by Lowell A. Bangerter. Riverside, Calif.: Ariadne, 2003.
  ———. Sozialgeschichte Österreichs. 2nd ed. Vienna: Verlag für Geschichte und Politik, 2001.
  Burmeister, Karl. Geschichte Vorarlbergs. Vienna: Verlag für Geschichte und Politik, 1998.
  Csendes, Peter. Geschichte Wiens. Vienna: Verlag für Geschichte und Politik, 1981.
  Czeike, Felix. Geschichte der Stadt Wien. Vienna: Molden, 1981.
  Davies, Norman. God’s Playground: A History of Poland. 2 vols. New York: Columbia University Press, 1982.
  Ernst, August. Geschichte des Burgenlandes. Vienna: Verlag für Geschichte und Politik, 1987.
  Fichtner, Paula Sutter. The Habsburg Empire: From Dynasticism to Multinationalism. Malabar, Fla.: Krieger, 1997.
  ———. The Habsburg Empire, 14901848. Attributes of Empire. Houndsmills, UK: Palgrave, 2004.
  Fräss-Ehrenfeld, Claudia. Geschichte Kärntens. Klagenfurt: Heyn, 1984–. 3 vols. to date.
  Gutkas, Karl. Geschichte Niederösterreichs. Vienna: Verlag für Geschichte und Politik, 1983.
  Haider, Siegfried. Geschichte Oberösterreichs. Vienna: Verlag für Geschichte und Politik, 1987.
  Jászi, Oscar. The Dissolution of the Habsburg Monarchy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1929.
  Jelavich, Barbara. Modern Austria: Empire and Republic 18151986. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.
  Kann, Robert A. The Habsburg Empire: A Study in Integration and Disintegration. New York: Praeger, 1957.
  ———. A History of the Habsburg Empire 15261918. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1974.
  Macartney, C. A. The Habsburg Empire, 17901918. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1969.
  Osterreichische Geschichte. Ed. Herwig Wolfram. 10 vols. Vienna: Ueberreuter, 1995–2004. Individual volumes are listed by title in appropriate chronological subdivisions of this bibliography.
  Riedmann, Josef. Geschichte Tirols. Vienna: Verlag für Geschichte und Politik, 2001.
  Sayer, Derek. The Coasts of Bohemia: A Czech History. Translated by Alina. Sayer. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1998.
  Sked, Alan. The Decline and Fall of the Habsburg Empire, 18151918. 2nd ed. Harlow, UK: Pearson, 2001.
  Stadler, Karl. Austria. New York: Praeger, 1971.
  Sugar, Peter F., and Peter Hanak, eds. A History of Hungary. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990.
  Taylor, A. J. P. The Habsburg Monarchy 18091918: A History of the Austrian Empire and AustriaHungary. Reprint of 2nd rev. ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1976.
  Teich, M. Bohemia in History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
  Wandruszka, Adam. The House of Habsburg. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday Anchor, 1965.
  Wandruszka, Adam, and Peter Urbanitsch, eds. Die Habsburger Monarchie 18481918. Vienna: Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1973–. 7 vols. to date.
  Wandycz, Piotr S. The Lands of Partitioned Poland, 17951918. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1974.
  Widder, Roland, ed. Burgenland. Vienna: Böhlau, 2000.
  Zaisberger, Friederike. Geschichte Salzburgs. Vienna: Verlag für Geschichte und Politik, 1998.
  Zöllner, Erich. Geschichte Österreichs: Von den Anfängen bis zur Gegenwart. 7th ed. Vienna: Verlag für Geschichte und Politik, 1984.
   V. THE HISTORY OF AUSTRIA FROM ANTIQUITY TO 1273
   1. General
  Alföldy, Géza. Noricum. Translated by Anthony Birley. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1974.
  Bowlus, Charles R. Franks, Moravians, and Magyars: The Struggle for the Middle Danube. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1995.
  Brunner, Karl. Herzogtümer und Marken: Von Ungarnsturm bis ins 12. Jahrhundert. Vienna: Ueberreuter, 1994.
  Brunner, Otto. Land and Lordship: Structure of Governance in Medieval Austria. Translated by Howard Kaminsky and James Van Horn Melton. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1992.
  Dopsch, Heinz, Karl Brunner, and Maximilian Weltin. Die Länder und das Reich: Der Ostalpenraum im Hochmittelalter. Vienna: Ueberreuter, 1999.
  Leeper, Alexander W. A. A History of Medieval Austria. New York: AMS, 1978. Reprint.
  Lhotsky, Alphons. Europäisches Mittelalter: Das Land Österreich. Vol. 1, Aufsätze und Vorträge, edited by Hans Wagner and Heinrich Koller. 5 vols. Vienna: Verlag für Geschichte und Politik, 1970.
  Urban, Otto. Der Lange Weg zur Geschichte: Die Urgeschichte Österreichs. Vienna: Ueberreuter, 2000.
  Wolfram, Herwig. Grenzen und Räume. Geschichte Österreichs vor seiner Entstehung. Vienna: Ueberreuter, 1995.
  Zibermayr, Ignaz. Noricum Baiern und Österreich. Horn, Austria: Berger, 1956.
   2. Cultural
  Lengyel, A., and G. T. B. Radan, eds. The Archaeology of Roman Pannonia. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1980.
  Wagner-Rieger, Renate. Mittelalterliche Architektur in Österreich. Edited by Artur Rosenauer. St. Pölten: Niederösterreichisches Pressehaus, 1988.
  Zeman, Herbert, ed. Die osterreichische Literatur: Ihr Profil von den Anfängen im Mittelalter bis ins 18. Jahrhundert (10501750). Graz: Akademische Druck-und Verlagsanstalt, 1986.
   3. Legal and Political
  Fichtenau, Heinrich. Von der Mark bis zum Herzogtum: Grundlagen und Sinn desPrivilegium Minusfür Österreich. Vienna: Verlag für Geschichte und Politik, 1958.
  Hageneder, Othmar. Die geistliche Gerichtsbarket in Ober- und Niederösterreich: Von den Anfängen bis zum Beginn des 15. Jahrhunderts. Graz: Böhlau, 1967.
   4. Social and Economic
  Herrschaftsstruktur und Ständebildung: Beiträge zur Typologie der österreichischen Länder aus ihren mittelalterlichen Grundlagen. 3 vols. Vienna: Verlag für Geschichte und Politik, 1971–1973.
   VI. THE HISTORY OF AUSTRIA FROM 1273 TO 1519
   General
  Hern, Gerhard. Der Aufsteig des Hauses Habsburg. 2nd ed. Düsseldorf: ECON, 1988.
  Hödl, Günter. Habsburg und Österreich 12731493: Gestalten und Gestalt des österreichischen Spätmittelalters. Vienna: Böhlau, 1988.
  Macartney, C. A. The House of Austria. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1978.
  Niederstätter, Alois. Die Herrschaft Österreich: Fürst und Land im Spätmittelalter. Vienna: Ueberreuter, 2001.
  ———. Das Jahrhundert der Mitte: An der Wende vom Mittelalter zur Neuzeit. Vienna:Ueberreuter, 1996.
   Cultural
  Cuyler, Louise. The Emperor Maximilian I and Music. New York: Oxford University Press, 1973.
  Feuchtmüller, Rupert. Kunst in Österreich: Vom frühen Mittelalter bis zum Gegenwart. Vol 1. Vienna: Forum Verlag, 1972.
  Feuchtmüller, Rupert, ed. Renaissance in Österreich: Geschichte, Wissenschaft, Kunst. Vienna: Berger, 1974.
  Shank, Michael H. Unless You Believe, You Shall Not Understand: Logic, University and Society in Late Medieval Vienna. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1988.
  Spitz, Lewis W. Conrad Celtis the German Arch-Humanist. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1957.
  ———. The Religious Renaissance of the German Humanists. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1963.
  Tanner, Marie. The Last Descendant of Aeneas: The Habsburgs and the Mythic Image of the Emperor. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1993.
   Political
  Baum, Wilhelm. Sigmund der Münzreiche: Zur Geschichte Tirols und der habsburgischen Länder im Spätmittelalter. Bolzano: Athesia, 1987.
  Benecke, Gerhard. Maximilian I, 14591519: An Analytical Biography. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1982.
  Brady, Thomas A. Turning Swiss: Cities and Empire, 14501550. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.
  Forcher, Michael. Um Freiheit und Gerechtigkeit: Michael Gaismair. Leben und Program des Tiroler Bauernführers und Sozialrevolutionärs (14901532). Innsbruck: Haymon, 1986.
  Franzl, Johann. Rudolf I: Der erste Habsburger auf dem deutschen Thron. Graz: Styria, 1986.
  Klaasen, Walter. Michael Gaismair, Revolutionary and Reformer. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1978.
  Rill, Bernd. Friedrich III: Habsburgs Europäischer Durchbruch. Graz: Styria, 1987.
  Wiesflecker, Hermann. Kaiser Maximilian I: Das Reich, Österreich und Europa an der Wende zur Neuzeit. 5 vols. Munich: Oldenbourg, 1971–1986.
   Social/Economic
  Eidelberg, Schlomo. Jewish Life in Austria in the XVth Century as Reflected in the Legal Writings of Rabbi Israel Isserlein and His Contemporaries. Philadelphia, Pa.: Dropsie College for Hebrew and Cognate Learning, 1962.
  Hsia, R. Po-chia. Trent 1475: Stories of a Ritual Murder Trial. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1992.
   VII. THE HISTORY OF AUSTRIA FROM 1519 TO 1789
   General
  Evans, R. J. W. The Making of the Habsburg Monarchy, 15501700. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1979.
  Ingrao, Charles. The Habsburg Monarchy 16181815. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
  ———, ed. State and Society in Early Modern Austria. West Lafayette, Ind.: Purdue University Press, 1994.
  Koenigsberger, Helmut G. The Habsburgs and Europe, 15161660. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1971.
  Vocelka, Karl. Glanz und Untergang der Höfischen Welt: Repräsentation, Reform und Reaktion im Habsburgischen Vielvölkerstaat. Vienna: Ueberreuter, 2001.
  Wangerman, Ernst. The Austrian Achievement, 17001800. New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1973.
  Winkelbauer, Thomas. Ständefreiheit und Fürstenmacht. 2 parts. Vienna: Ueberreuter, 2004.
   Cultural
  Braunbehrens, Volkmar. Mozart in Vienna, 17811791. Translated by Timothy Bell. New York: Grove Weidenfeld, 1990.
  Brewer, Charles. The Fantastic Style: Instrumental Music in the Habsburg Lands during the Later Seventeenth Century. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2002.
  Brown, Bruce Alan. Gluck and the French Theatre in Vienna. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991.
  Coreth, Anna. Pietas Austriaca. Translated by William D. Bowman and Anna Maria Leitgeb. West Lafayette, Ind.: Purdue University Press, 2004.
  Duindam, Jeroen. Vienna and Versailles: The Courts of Europe’s Dynastic Rivals, 15501780. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.
  Evans, R. J. W. Rudolph II and His World: A Study in Intellectual History 15761612. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1973.
  Garberson, Eric. Eighteenth-Century Monastic Libraries in Southern Germany and Austria: Architecture and Decorations. Baden-Baden: Koerner, 1998.
  Gay, Peter. Mozart. New York: Viking, 1999.
  Geiringer, Karl, and Irene Geiringer. Haydn: A Creative Life in Music. 3rd ed. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1982.
  Gutman, Robert. Mozart: A Cultural Biography. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1999.
  Hildesheimer, Wolfgang. Mozart. Translated by Marion Faber. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1982.
  Kann, Robert A. A Study in Austrian Intellectual History: From Late Baroque to Romanticism. New York: Praeger, 1960.
  Kaufmann, Thomas daCosta. The Eloquent Artist: Essays on Art, Art Theory and Architecture, Sixteenth to Nineteenth Centuries. London: Pindar, 2004.
  ———. The Mastery of Nature. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1993.
  ———. Painterly Enlightenment: The Art of Franz Anton Maulbertsch, 17241796. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2005.
  ———. The School of Prague: Painting at the Court of Rudolf II. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988.
  ———. Variations on the Imperial Theme: Studies in Ceremonial, Art and Collecting in the Age of Maximilian II and Rudolph II. New York: Garland, 1978.
  Landon, H. C. Robbins. Mozart and Vienna. New York: Schirmer Books, 1991.
  Landon, H. C. Robbins., and David Wyn Jones. Haydn: His Life and Music. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1988.
  Larsen, Jens Peter. The New Grove Haydn. New York: Norton, 1983.
  Louthan, Howard. The Quest for Compromise: Peacemakers in CounterReformation Vienna. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
  MacHardy, Karin J. War, Religion and Court Patronage: The Social and Cultural Dimensions of Political Interaction, 15211622. Houndsmills, UK: Palgrave, 2003.
  MacIntyre, Bruce C. The Viennese Concerted Mass of the Early Classic Period. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Research Press, 1986.
  Melton, James Van Horn. Absolutism and the Eighteenth-century Origins of Compulsory Schooling in Prussia and Austria. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.
  Morrow, Mary Sue. Concert Life in Haydn’s Vienna: Aspects of a Developing Musical and Social Institution. Stuyvesant, N.Y.: Pendragon Press, 1989.
  O’Brien, Charles H. Ideas of Religious Toleration of Joseph II: A Study of the Enlightenment and Catholics in Austria. Philadelphia, Pa.: American Philosophical Society, 1969.
  Packull, Werner O. Mysticism and the Early South GermanAustrian Anabaptist Movement. 15251531. Studies in Anabaptist History, 19. Scottsdale, Pa.: Herald Press, 1977.
  Pörtner, Regina. The Counter-Reformation in Central Europe: Styria 15801630. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2001.
  Rosen, Charles. The Classical Style: Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven. New York: Norton, 1971.
  Rushton, Julian. Mozart. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.
  Sadie, Stanley. The New Grove Mozart. New York: Norton, 1983.
  Saunders, Steven. Cross, Sword, and Lyre: Sacred Music at the Imperial Court of Ferdinand II of Habsburg (16191637). Oxford: Clarendon, 1995.
  Trevor-Roper, Hugh. Princes and Artists: Patronage and Ideology at Four Habsburg Courts 15171633. New York: Harper & Row, 1976.
   Diplomatic/Military
  Anderson, M. S. The War of the Austria Succession, 17401748. London/ New York: Longman, 1995.
  Barker, Thomas M. Army, Aristocracy, Monarchy: Essays on War, Society and Government in Austria 16181780. New York: Columbia University Press, 1982.
  ———. Double Eagle and Crescent. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1967.
  ———. Raimondo Montecuccoli and the Thirty Years’ War: A Military Intellectual and His Battles. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1975.
  Browning, Reed. The War of the Austrian Succession. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1995.
  Frey, Linda, and Marsha Frey. A Question of Empire: Leopold I and the War of the Spanish Succession. Boulder, Colo.: East European Monographs, 1983.
  Haskins, Janina W. Victory at Vienna: The Ottoman Siege of 1683, a Historical Essay and a Selective List of Reading Materials. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, European Division, 1983.
  Henderson, Nicholas. Prince Eugene of Savoy. New York: Praeger, 1965.
  Hochedlinger, Michael. Austria’s Wars of Emergence 16831797. London: Pearson, 2003.
  Kaplan, Herbert H. The First Partition of Poland. New York: Columbia University Press, 1962.
  Roider, Karl. Austria’s Eastern Question, 17001790. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1982.
  Rothenberg, Gunther E. The Austrian Military Border in Croatia, 1522 1747. Illinois Studies in the Social Sciences, 48. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1960.
  Stoye, John. The Siege of Vienna. London: Collins, 1964.
   Political
  Asch, Ronald G., and Adolf M. Birke, eds. Princes, Patronage, and the Nobility: The Court at the Beginning of the Early Modern Era, c. 1450 1560. London: Oxford, 1991.
  Banac, Ivo, and Frank E. Sysyn, eds. Concepts of Nationhood in Early Modern Eastern Europe. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Ukrainian Studies, 1986.
  Beales, Derek. Joseph II. 2 vols. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987–.
  Bernard, Paul. From the Enlightenment to the Police State: The Public Life of Johann Anton Pergen. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1991.
  ———. Jesuits and Jacobins: Enlightenment and Enlightened Despotism in Austria. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1971.
  ———. The Limits of Enlightenment: Joseph II and the Law. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1979.
  Bireley, Robert S. J. Religion and Politics in the Age of the Counterreformation: Emperor Ferdinand II, William Lamormaini, S.J. and the Formation of Imperial Policy. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1981.
  Blanning, T. C. W. Joseph II. London: Longman, 1994.
  Davis, Walter W. Joseph II: An Imperial Reformer for the Austrian Netherlands. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1974.
  Dickson, Peter G. Finance and Government under Maria Theresia, 1740 1780. 2 vols. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987.
  Dillon, Kenneth J. King and Estates in the Bohemian Lands, 15261564. Studies Presented to the International Commission for the History of Representative and Parliamentary Institutions, 57. Brussels: Les Éditions de la Librairie Encyclopédique, 1976.
  Evans, R. J. W., and T. V. Thomas, eds. Crown, Church, and Estates: Central European Politics in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries . New York: St. Martin’s, 1991.
  Fichtner, Paula Sutter. Emperor Maximilian II. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2001.
  ———. Ferdinand I of Austria: The Politics of Dynasticism in the Age of the Reformation. Boulder, Colo.: East European Monographs, 1982.
  Hughes, Michael. Law and Politics in Eighteenth Century Germany: The Imperial Aulic Council in the Reign of Charles VI. Royal Historical Society Studies in History, 55. Wolfboro, N.H.: Boydell and Brewer, 1988.
  Ingrao, Charles. In Quest and Crisis: Emperor Joseph I and the Habsburg Monarchy. West Lafayette, Ind.: Purdue University Press, 1979.
  Karafiol, Emile. Unenlightened Absolutism and Reform: Maria Theresa and the Reform of the Lower Austrian Government, 17401764. Philadelphia, Pa.: American Philosophical Society, 1970.
  Király, Belá K. Hungary in the Late Eighteenth Century: The Decline of Enlightened Despotism. New York: Columbia University Press, 1969.
  Levy, Miriam J. Governance and Grievance: Habsburg Policy and Italian Tyrol in the Eighteenth Century. West Lafayette, Ind.: Purdue University Press, 1988.
  Mat’a, Petr, and Thomas Winkelbauer, eds. Die Habsburger Monarchie 1620 bis 1740, Leistungen und Grenzen des Absolutismusparadigmas. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner, 2006.
  McGill, William J., Jr. Maria Theresa. New York: Twayne, 1972.
  McKay, Derek. Prince Eugene of Savoy. London: Thames and Hudson, 1977.
  Perjés, Géza. The Fall of the Medieval Kingdom of Hungary. Translated by Mario D. Fenyo. Boulder, Colo.: Social Science Monographs, 1989.
  Polasky, Janet L. Revolution in Brussels 17871793. Brussels: Académie royale de Belgique: 1987.
  Spielman, John. Leopold I of Austria. London: Thames and Hudson, 1977.
  Strakosch, Henry E. State Absolutism and the Rule of Law: The Struggle for the Codification of Civil Law in Austria, 17531811. Sydney: University of Sydney Press, 1967.
  Subtelny, Orest. Domination of Eastern Europe: Native Nobilities and Foreign Absolutism. Montreal: McGill-Queens University Press, 1986.
  Szabo, Franz A. J. Kaunitz and Enlightened Absolutism 17531780. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.
  Walker, Mack. The Salzburg Transaction: Expulsion and Redemption in Eighteenth-Century Germany. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1992.
  Zacek, Joseph. The Enlightenment and the National Revivals in Eastern Europe. Special Issue of Canadian Review of Studies in Nationalism 10, no.1. Charlottetown: University of Prince Edward Island, 1983.
   Social/Economic
  Freudenberger, Hermann. Lost Momentum: Austrian Economic Development, 1750s1830s. Vienna: Böhlau, 2003.
  ———. The Waldstein Woolen Mill: Noble Entrepreneurship in EighteenthCentury Bohemia. Kress Library of Business and Economics, 18. Boston: Baker Library Harvard Graduate School of Business, 1963.
  Komlos, John. Nutrition and Economic Development in the EighteenthCentury Habsburg Monarchy. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1990.
  Link, Edith Murr. The Emancipation of the Austrian Peasant, 17401798. New York: Columbia University Press, 1949.
  Rebel, Hermann. Peasant Classes: The Bureaucratization of Property and Family Relations under Early Habsburg Absolutism, 15111636. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1983.
  Spiel, Hilde. Fanny von Arnstein: A Daughter of the Enlightenment. Translated by Christine Shuttleworth. New York: Berg, 1991.
  Spielman, John P. The City and the Crown. West Lafayette, Ind.: Purdue University Press, 1993.
  Wright, William E. Serf, Seigneur and Sovereign: Agrarian Reform in Eighteenth-Century Bohemia. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1966.
   VIII. THE HISTORY OF AUSTRIA FROM 1789 TO 1867
   1. Cultural
  Agnew, Hugh L. Origins of the Czech National Renasence. Pittsburgh, Pa.: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1993.
  Basa, Eniko. Sándor Petofi. Boston: Twayne, 1980.
  Brown, Maurice J. F. The New Grove Schubert. New York: Norton, 1983.
  Bunnell, Adam. Before Infallibility: Liberal Catholicism in Biedermeier Vienna. Rutherford, N.J.: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1990.
  Chase, Linda, and Karl Kung. The World of Biedermeier. London: Thames and Hudson, 2001.
  Cherlin, Michael, Halina Filipowicz, and Richard L. Rudolph, eds. The Great Tradition and Its Legacy: The Evolution of Dramatic and Musical Theater in Austria and Central Europe. New York: Berghahn, 2003.
  DeNora, Tia. Beethoven and the Construction of Genius: Musical Politics in Vienna, 17921803. Berkeley.: University of California Press, 1997.
  Erickson, Raymond, ed. Schubert’s Vienna. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1997.
  Hanson, Alice M. Musical Life in Biedermeier Vienna. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.
  Hilmar, Ernst. Franz Schubert in His Time. Translated by Reinhard G. Pauly. Portland, Ore.: Amadeus, 1985.
  Kagan, Susan. Archduke Rudolph, Beethoven’s Patron, Pupil, and Friend: His Life and Music. Stuyvesant, N.Y.: Pendragon Press, 1988.
  Landon, H. C. Robbins. Beethoven: His Life, Work, and World. London: Thames and Hudson, 1993.
  Lockwood, Louis. Beethoven: The Music and the Life. New York: Norton, 2002.
  McKay, Elizabeth Norman. Franz Schubert: A Biography. New York: Oxford, 1996.
  Nemoianu, Virgil. The Taming of Romanticism: European Literature and the Age of Biedermeier. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1984.
  Osborne, Charles. Schubert and His Vienna. New York: Knopf, 1985.
  Prohaska, Dorothy. Raimund and Vienna: A Critical Study of Raimund’s Plays in the Viennese Setting. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1970.
  Ward, Mark G., ed. From Vormärz to Fin-de-Siècle: Essays in Nineteenth Century Austrian Literature. Blairgowrie, Scotland: Lochee Publications, 1986.
  Wilkie, Angus. Biedermeier. 2nd ed. New York: Abbeville, 2006.
  Williams, Simon. German Comic Actors of the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1985.
  Yates, W. E. Nestroy: Satire and Parody in Viennese Popular Comedy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1972.
  ———. Theatre in Vienna: A Critical History, 17761995. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
   2. Diplomatic/Military
  Billinger, Robert D. Metternich and the German Question: States’ Rights and Federal Duties, 18201834. Newark: University of Delaware Press, 1991.
  Blumberg, Arnold. A Carefully Planned Accident: The Italian War of 1859. Cranbury, N.J.: Susquehanna University Press, 1990.
  Kraehe, Enno. Metternich’s German Policy. 2 vols. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1963–1983.
  Reinerman, Alan J. Austria and the Papacy in the Age of Metternich. 2 vols. Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America Press, 1990.
  Rothenberg, Günther E. Napoleon’s Great Adversaries: The Archduke Charles and the Austrian Army, 17921814. London.: Batsford, 1982.
  Schroeder, Paul. Austria, Great Britain and the Crimean War: The Destruction of the European Concert. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1972.
  ———. Metternich’s Diplomacy at Its Zenith, 18201823. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1962.
  Sondhaus, Lawrence. In the Service of the Emperor: Italians in the Austrian Armed Forces 18141918. Boulder, Colo.: East European Monographs, 1990.
   3. Political
  Bödy, Paul. Joseph Eötvös and the Modernization of Hungary, 18401870: A Study of Ideas of Individuality and Social Pluralism in Modern Politics. Philadelphia, Pa.: American Philosophical Society, 1972.
  Brauer, Kinley, and William Wright, eds. Austria in the Age of the French Revolution. Minneapolis, Minn.: Center for Austrian Studies, 1991.
  Deme, Lászlo. The Radical Left in the Hungarian Revolution of 1848. Boulder, Colo.: East European Quarterly, 1976.
  Eyck, F. Gunther. Andreas Hofer and the Tyrolean Uprising of 1809. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 1986.
  Emerson, Donald E. Metternich and the Political Police: Security and Subversion in the Habsburg Monarchy, 18151830. The Hague: Nijhoff, 1968.
  Haas, Arthur G. Metternich: Reorganization and Nationality, 18131818. Wiesbaden: Steiner, 1963.
  Hitchins, Keith. The Rumanian National Movement in Transylvania, 1780 1849. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1969.
  Kimball, Stanley B. The AustroSlav Revival: A Study of Nineteenth-Century Literary Foundations. Philadelphia, Pa.: American Philosophical Society, 1973.
  Kozik, Jan. The Ukrainian National Movement in Galicia: 18151849. Translated by Andrew Gorsky and Lawrence Orton. Edmonton: Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies, 1986.
  Langsam, Walter C. Francis the Good: The Education of an Emperor, 17681792. New York: Macmillan, 1949.
  Magocsi, Paul Robert. The Shaping of a National Identity: Subcarpathian Rus’, 18481948. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1978.
  Milne, Alan. Metternich. Totowa, N.J.: Rowman and Littlefield, 1975.
  Niederhauser, Emil. The Rise of Nationality in Eastern Europe. Budapest: Corvina Kiado, 1981.
  Orton, Lawrence. The Prague Slav Congress of 1848. Boulder, Colo.: East European Monographs, 1978.
  Palmer, Alan. Metternich. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1972.
  Pech, Stanley A. The Czech Revolution of 1848. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1969.
  Radványi, Egon. Metternich’s Projects for Reform in Austria. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1971.
  Rath, R. John. The Provisional Austrian Government in LombardyVenetia, 18131815. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1969.
  ———. The Viennese Revolution of 1848. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1957.
  Roider, Karl. Baron Thugut and Austria’s Response to the French Revolution. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1987.
  Spira, György. A Hungarian Count in the Revolution of 1848. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiado, 1974.
  Stroup, Edsel Walter. Hungary in Early 1848: The Constitutional Struggle against Absolutism in Contemporary Eyes. Buffalo, N.Y.: Hungarian Cultural Foundation, 1976.
   4. Social/Economic
  Halleiner, Karl F. The Imperial Loans: A Study in Financial and Diplomatic History. Oxford: Clarendon, 1965.
   IX. THE HISTORY OF AUSTRIA FROM 1867 TO 1918
   1. General
  Bled, Jean Paul. Franz Joseph. Translated by Teresa Bridgeman. Oxford: Blackwell, 1993.
  Cornwall, Mark, ed. The Last Years of AustriaHungary: A Multi-National Experiment in Early Twentieth-century Europe. 2nd ed. Exeter: University of Exeter Press, 2002.
  ———. The Undermining of AustriaHungary: The Battle for Hearts and Minds. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave, 2000.
  Hanisch, Ernst. Österreichische Geschichte 18901990: Der Lange Schatten des Staates. Österreichische Gesellschaftsgeschichte im 20. Jahrhundert. Vienna: Ueberreuther, 1994.
  Jelavich, Barbara. History of the Balkans. 2 vols. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983.
  Jelavich, Barbara, and Charles Jelavich. The Establishment of the Balkan National States. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1977.
  Kann, Robert A. The Multi-National Empire. 2 vols. New York: Octagon, 1964. Reprint.
  Kann, Robert A., Belá K. Király, and Paula Sutter Fichtner, eds. The Habsburg Empire in World War I: Essays on the Intellectual Military, Political and Economic Aspects of the Habsburg War Effort. Boulder, Colo.: East European Quarterly, 1977.
  Rumpler, Helmut. Eine Chance für Mitteleuropa: Bürgerliche Emanzipation und Staatsverfall in der Habsburger Monarchie. Vienna: Donauland, 2005.
  Sked, Alan. The Decline and Fall of the Habsburg Empire, 18151918. 2nd ed. Harlow, UK: Pearson, 2001.
   2. Cultural
  Alofsin, Anthony. When Buildings Speak: Architecture as Language in the Habsburg Empire and Its Aftermath, 18671933. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006.
  Alter, Max. Carl Menger and the Origins of Austrian Economics. Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 1990.
  Anderson, Mark M. Kafka’s Clothes: Ornament and Aestheticism in the Habsburg Fin de Siècle. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1992.
  Beller, Steven. Vienna and the Jews, 18671938: A Cultural History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.
  ———, ed. Rethinking Vienna 1900. New York: Berghahn Books, 2001.
  Eve Blau, and Monica Platzer, eds. Shaping the Great City: Modern Architecture in Central Europe, 18901937. Munich: Prestel, 1999.
  Borsi, Franco. Vienna 1900: Architecture and Design. Translated by MarieHelene Aqueros. New York Chelsea House, 1986.
  Bottomore, Tom B., and Patrick Goode. Austro-Marxism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978.
  Broch, Hermann. Hugo von Hofmannsthal and His Time: The European Imagination, 18601920. Translated by Michael Steinberg. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984.
  Cacciari, Massimo. Posthumous People: Vienna at the Turning Point. Translated by Rodger Friedman. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1997.
  Carr, Jonathan. Mahler. Woodstock, N.Y.: Overlook Press, 1998.
  Cherlin, Michael. Schoenberg’s Musical Imagination. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
  Clegg, Elizabeth. Art, Design and Architecture in Central Europe 1890 1920. New Haven, Conn: Yale University Press, 2006.
  Coen, Deborah R. Vienna in the Age of Uncertainty: Science, Liberalism, and Private Life. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007.
  Cohen, Gary B. Education and Middle Class Society in Imperial Austria, 18481918. West Lafayette, Ind.: Purdue University Press, 1996.
  Crittenden, Camille. Johann Strauss and Vienna: Operetta and the Politics of Popular Culture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.
  Daviau, Donald G. Hermann Bahr. Boston: Twayne, 1985.
  ———, ed. Major Figures of Nineteenth-Century Austrian Literature. Riverside, Calif.: Ariadne, 1998.
  ———, ed. Major Figures of Turn-of-the Century Austrian Literature. Riverside, Calif: Ariadne, 1991.
  De La Grange, Henri-Louis. Gustav Mahler: Vienna: The Years of Challenge (18971904). 2 vols. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1973 1994.
  Donn, Lucinda. Freud and Jung: Years of Friendship, Years of Loss. New York: Scribner, 1988. New York: Collier Books, 1990. Reissue.
  Field, Frank. The Last Days of Mankind: Karl Kraus and His Vienna. London: Macmillan, 1967.
  Francis, Mark, ed. The Viennese Enlightenment. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1985.
  Gatt-Rutter, John. Italo Svevo: A Double Life. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.
  Gay, Peter. Freud: A Life for Our Time. New York: Norton, 1988.
  ———. Freud for Historians. New York: Oxford University Press, 1985.
  ———. Freud, Jews, and Other Germans: Masters and Victims in Modernist Culture. New York: Oxford University Press, 1978.
  Grassl, Wolfgang, and Barry Smith, eds. Austrian Economics: Historical and Philosophical Background. New York: New York University Press, 1986.
  Hacohen, Malachi Haim. Karl Popper, the Formative Years, 19021945: Politics and Philosophy in Interwar Vienna. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
  Hanslick, Eduard. Hanslick’s Music Criticisms. Translated and edited by Henry Pleasants. Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1963. Reissue: New York: Dover Publications, 1988.
  Hayman, Ronald. Kafka: A Biography. New York: Oxford University Press, 1982.
  Hirschmüller, Albrecht. The Life and Work of Joseph Breuer: Physiology and Psychoanalysis. New York: New York University Press, 1989.
  Janik, Allan, and Stephen Toulmin. Wittgenstein’s Vienna. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1973.
  Johnston, William M. The Austrian Mind: An Intellectual and Social History. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1972.
  ———. Vienna: The Golden Age, 18151914. New York: Crown Publishers, 1981.
  Kallir, Jane. Viennese Design and the Wiener Werkstätte. New York: Braziller, 1986.
  Klein, Dennis B. Jewish Origins of the Psychoanalytic Movement. New York: Praeger, 1981.
  Le Rider, Jacques. Modernity and Crises of Identity: Culture and Society in Fin-de-Siècle Vienna. Translated by Rosemary Morris. New York: Polity, 1993.
  Lesky, Erna. The Vienna Medical School of the 19th Century. Translated by L. Williams and I. S. Levij. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1976.
  Luft, David. Eros and Inwardness in Vienna: Weininger, Musil, Doderer. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003.
  McColl, Sandra. Music Criticism in Vienna, 18961897. Oxford: Clarendon, 1996.
  McGrath, William. Dionysian Art and Politics in Austria. New Haven, Conn.: Yale UniversityPress, 1974.
  ———. Freud’s Discovery of Psychoanalysis: The Politics of Hysteria. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1986.
  Mitsch, Erwin. The Art of Egon Schiele. Translated by W. Keith Haughan. 2nd ed. New York: Hudson Hills Press, 1988.
  Monk, Ray. Ludwig Wittgenstein: The Duty of Genius. New York: Penguin, 1990.
  Monson, Karen. Alma Mahler, Muse to Genius: From Fin-de-Siècle Vienna to Hollywood. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1983.
  Nyiri, J. C., ed. Austrian Philosophy: Studies and Texts. Munich: Philosophia Verlag, 1981.
  Olin, Margaret. Forms of Representation in Alois Riegl’s Theory of Art. University Park, Pa.: Penn State Press, 1992.
  Olsen, Donald J. The City as a Work of Art: London. Paris. Vienna. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1986.
  Oxaal, Ivar, Michael Pollak, and Gerhard Botz, eds. Jews, Antisemitism, and Culture in Vienna. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1987.
  Powell, Nicolas. The Sacred Spring: The Arts in Vienna, 18981918. Greenwich, Conn.: New York Graphic Society, 1974.
  Ritvo, Lucille B. Darwin’s Influence on Freud: A Tale of Two Sciences. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1990.
  Salinger, Herman, and Herbert W. Reichert, eds. Studies in Arthur Schnitzler. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1963.
  Smith, Kimberly A. Between Ruin and Renewal: Egon Schiele’s Landscapes. New Haven, Conn: Yale University Press, 2004.
  Schorske, Carl E. Fin-de-siècle Vienna: Politics and Culture. New York: Alfred Knopf, 1980.
  Schweiger, Werner J. Wiener Werkstätte: Design in Vienna, 19031932. Translated by Alexander Lieven. New York: Abbeville Press, 1984.
  Seckerson, Edward. Mahler: His Life and Times. New York: Hippocrene Books, 1983.
  Segel, Harold B., ed. and trans. The Vienna Coffeehouse Wits, 18901938. West Lafayette, Ind.: Purdue University Press, 1995.
  Sekler, Eduard. Josef Hoffmann: The Architectural Work. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1985.
  Shedel, James. Art and Society: The New Art Movement in Vienna, 1897 1914. Palo Alto, Calif: SPOSS, 1981.
  Smith, Joan Allen. Schoenberg and His Circle. A Viennese Portrait. New York: Schirmer, 1986.
  Stepansky, Paul E. In Freud’s Shadow: Adler in Context. New York : Analytic Press, 1983.
  Timms, Edward. Karl Kraus. Apocalyptic Satirist. 2 vols. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1986–2005.
  Topp, Leslie. Architecture and Truth in Fin-de-siècle Vienna. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.
  Vegesack, Alexander von, et al. Thonet: Classic Furniture in Bent Wood and Tubular Steel. London: Hazar, 1996.
  Vergo, Peter. Art in Vienna, 18981918: Klimt, Kokoschka, Schiele and Their Contemporaries. London: Phaidon Press, 1975.
  Waissenberger, Robert. Vienna Secession. New York: Rizzoli, 1977.
  ———, ed. Vienna, 18901920. New York: Rizzoli, 1984.
  Werkner, Patrick, ed. Egon Schiele: Art, Sexuality, and Viennese Modernism. Palo Alto, Calif.: SPOSS, 1994.
  Whitford, Frank. Oskar Kokoschka: A Life. New York: Atheneum, 1986.
  Yates, W. E. Schhnitzler, Hofmannsthal, and the Austrian Theatre. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1992.
  Zanuso, Billa. The Young Freud: The Origins of Psychoanalysis in Late Nineteenth-Century Viennese Culture. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1986.
   3. Diplomatic/Military
  Bagdasarian, Nicholas der. The AustroGerman Rapprochement, 1870 1879: From the Battle of the Sedan to the Dual Alliance. Cranbury, N.J.: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1976.
  Breuilly, John. Austria, Prussia and Germany, 18061871. Edinburgh: Pearson, 2002.
  Bridge, F. R. Great Britain and AustriaHungary, 19061914. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1972.
  ———. The Habsburg Monarchy among the Great Powers,18151918. Oxford: Berg Publishers, 1991.
  Deák, István. Beyond Nationalism: A Social and Political History of the Habsburg Officer Corps 18481918. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.
  Decsy, János. Prime Minister Gyula Andrássy’s Influence on Habsburg Foreign Policy during the FrancoGerman War of 18701871. Boulder, Colo.: East European Quarterly, 1978.
  Dioszegi, István. Hungarians in the Ballhausplatz: Studies in the Austro Hungarian Common Foreign Policy. Budapest: Corvina, 1983.
  Evans, R. J. W., and Hartmut Pogge von Strandman, eds. The Coming of the First World War. Oxford: Clarendon, 1988.
  Fest, Wilfried. Peace or Partition: The Habsburg Monarchy and British Policy, 19141918. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1978.
  Godsey, William. Aristocratic Redoubt: The AustroHungarian Foreign Office on the Eve of the First World War. West Lafayette, Ind.: Purdue, 1999.
  Jenks, William A. Francis Joseph and the Italians, 18491859. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1978.
  Rothenberg, Gunther. The Army of Francis Joseph. West Lafayette, Ind.: Purdue University Press, 1972.
  Silberstein, Gerard E. The Troubled Alliance: GermanAustrian Relations 19141917. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1970.
  Sked, Alan. The Survival of the Habsburg Empire: Radetzky, the Imperial Army, and the Class War. London: Longman, 1979.
  Sokol, Anthony. The Imperial and Royal AustroHungarian Navy. Annapolis, Md.: United States Naval Institute, 1968.
  Sondhaus, Lawrence. Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf: Architect of the Apocalypse. Boston: Humanities Press, 2000.
  ———. The Naval Policy of AustriaHungary, 18671918: Navalism, Industrial Development, and the Politics of Dualism. West Lafayette, Ind.: Purdue University Press, 1994.
  Treadway, John D. The Falcon and the Eagle: Montenegro and Austria Hungary, 19081914. West Lafayette, Ind.: Purdue University Press, 1983.
  Tunstall, Graydon A., Jr. Planning for War against Russia and Serbia: AustroHungarian and German Military Strategies, 18711914. Boulder, Colo.: Social Science Monographs, 1993.
  Wawro, Geoffrey. The AustroPrussian War. Austria’s War with Prussia and Italy in 1866. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
  Weber, Frank G. Eagles on the Crescent: Germany, Austria, and the Diplomacy of the Turkish Alliance, 19141918. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1970.
  Williamson, Samuel R., Jr. AustriaHungary and the Origins of World War I. Houndsmills, UK: Macmillan, 1991.
   4. Political
  Banac, Ivo. The National Question in Yugoslavia, Origins, History and Politics. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1984.
  Bárány, George. Stephen Széchenyi and the Awakening of Hungarian Nationalism, 17911841. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1968.
  Beller, Stephen. Francis Joseph. London: Longman, 1994.
  Boyer, John W. Culture and Political Crisis in Vienna: Christian Socialism in Power, 18971918. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995.
  ———. Political Radicalism in Late Imperial Vienna: Origins of the Christian Social Movement, 18481897. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981.
  Bradley, John F. Czech Nationalism in the Nineteenth Century. Boulder, Colo.: East European Monographs, 1984.
  Brock, Peter. The Slovak National Awakening: An Essay in the Intellectual History of East Central Europe. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1976.
  Brook-Shepherd, Gordon. Archduke of Sarajevo: The Romance and Tragedy of Franz Ferdinand of Austria. Boston: Little, Brown, 1984.
  Cassels, Lavender. The Archduke and the Assassin: Sarajevo, June 28th 1914. New York: Stein and Day, 1985.
  Cohen, Gary B. The Politics of Ethnic Survival: Germans in Prague, 18611914. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1981.
  Deák, István. The Lawful Revolution: Louis Kossuth and the Hungarians, 18481849. New York: Columbia University Press, 1979.
  Despalatovic, Elinor Murray. Ljudevit Gaj and the Illyrian Movement. Boulder, Colo.: East European Monographs, 1975.
  Donia, Robert J. Islam under the Double Eagle: The Muslims of Bosnia and Hercegovina, 18781914. Boulder, Colo.: East European Quarterly, 1981.
  ———. Sarajevo: A Biography. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2006.
  Elon, Amos. Herzl. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1975.
  Garver, Bruce M. The Young Czech Party 18741900 and the Emergence of a Multi-Party System. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1978.
  Geehr, Richard S. Karl Lueger: Mayor of Fin de Siècle Vienna. Detroit, Mich.: Wayne State University Press, 1990.
  Glassheim, Eagle. Noble Nationalists: The Transformation of the Bohemian Aristocracy. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2005.
  Hamann, Brigitte. Bertha von Suttner: A Life for Peace. Translated by Ann Dubsky. Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 1996.
  ———. The Reluctant Empress. A Biography of Empress Elizabeth of Austria. Translated by Ruth Hein. New York: Knopf, 1986.
  Healy, Maureen. Vienna and the Fall of the Habsburg Monarchy: Total War and Everyday Life in World War I. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.
  Himka, John-Paul. Galician Villagers and the Ukrainian National Movement in the Nineteenth Century. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1988.
  ———. Socialism in Galicia: The Emergence of Polish Social Democracy and Ukrainian Radicalism, 18601890. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1983.
  Hitchins, Keith. Rumania 18661947. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.
  Jenks, William A. Austria under the Iron Ring, 18791893. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1965.
  ———. The Austrian Electoral Reform of 1907. New York: Columbia University Press, 1950.
  Judson, Pieter M. Exclusive Revolutionaries: Liberal Politics, Social Experience, and National Identity in the Austrian Empire, 18481914. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1966.
  ———. Guardians of the Nation: Activists on the Language Frontiers of Imperial Austria. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 2007.
  Kelly, T. Mills. Without Remorse: Czech National Socialism in Late Habsburg Austria. Boulder, Colo.: East European Monographs, 2006.
  King, Jeremy. Budweisers into Czechs and Germans: Local History of Bohemian Politics 18481948. Princeton, N. J.: Princeton University Press, 2005.
  Király, Belá K. Ferenc Deák. New York: Twayne, 1975.
  Knapp, Vincent J. Austrian Social Democracy, 18891914. Washington, D.C.: University Press of America, 1980.
  Mackenzie, David. Apis, the Congenial Conspirator: The Life of Colonel Dragutin T. Dimitrijevic. Boulder, Colo.: East European Monographs, 1989.
  Malcolm, Noel. Bosnia: A Short History. London: Macmillan, 1994.
  Markovits, Andrei S., and Frank E. Sysyn, eds. Nationbuilding and the Politics of Nationalism: Essays on Austrian Galicia. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1982.
  Markus, Georg. Crime at Mayerling: The Life and Death of Mary Vetsera. Translated by Carvel de Bussy. Riverside, Calif.: Ariadne, 1995.
  Mason, John W. The Dissolution of the AustroHungarian Empire, 1867 1918. 2nd ed. New York: Longman, 1996.
  May, Arthur. The Passing of the Habsburg Monarchy, 19141918. 2 vols. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1966.
  McCagg, William. A History of the Habsburg Jews, 16701918. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1989.
  Okey, Robin. Taming Balkan Nationalism: The HabsburgCivilizing Missionin Bosnia 18781914. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007.
  Palmer, Alan W. Twilight of the Habsburgs: The Life and Times of Emperor Francis Joseph. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1995.
  Pawel, Ernst. The Labyrinth of Exile: A Life of Theodor Herzl. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1989.
  Pulzer, Peter. The Rise of Political Anti-Semitism in Germany and Austria. Rev. ed. London: Halban, 1988.
  Redlich, Joseph. The Emperor Francis Joseph of Austria. Hamden, Conn.: Archon, 1969. Reprint.
  Rees, H. Louis. The Czechs during World War I: The Path to Independence. Boulder, Colo.: East European Monographs, 1992.
  Robertson, Ritchie, and Edward Timms, eds. The Habsburg Legacy: National Identity in Historical Perspective. Edinburgh: Edinburgh Press, 1994.
  Rogel, Carole. The Slovenes and Yugoslavism, 18901914. Boulder, Colo.: East European Quarterly, 1977.
  Salvendy, John T. Royal Rebel: A Psychological Portrait of Crown Prince Rudolf of AustriaHungary. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 1988.
  Seton-Watson, Hugh, and Christopher Seton-Watson. The Making of a New Europe: R.W. Seton Watson and the Last Years of AustriaHungary. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1981.
  Stokes, Gale. Politics as Development: The Emergence of Political Parties in Nineteenth-Century Serbia. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1990.
  Szporluk, Roman. The Political Thought of Thomas G. Masaryk. Boulder, Colo.: East European Quarterly, 1981.
  Unowsky, Daniel L. The Pomp and Politics of Patriotism: Imperial Celebrations in Habsburg Austria 18481916. West Lafayette, Ind.: Purdue University Press, 2005.
  Vermes, Gabor. István Tisza: The Liberal Vision and Conservative Statecraft of a Magyar Nationalist. Boulder, Colo.: East European Monographs, 1985.
  Whiteside, Andrew G. Austrian National Socialism before 1918. The Hague: Nijhoff, 1962.
  ———. The Socialism of Fools: Georg Ritter von Schönerer and Austrian Pan-Germanism. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1975.
  Winters, Stanley B., Robert B. Pynsent, and Harry Hanak. T.G. Masaryk. 3 vols. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1989–1990.
  Zaçek, Joseph Frederick. Palacky: The Historian as Scholar and Nationalist. The Hague: Mouton, 1970.
  Zeman, Z. A. B. The Break-Up of the Habsburg Empire, 19141918. London: Oxford University Press, 1961.
   5. Social/Economic
  Anderson, Harriet. Utopian Feminism: Women’s Movements in Fin-deSiècle Vienna. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1992.
  Blum, Mark. The Austro-Marxists 18901918: A Psychological Study. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1985.
  Bottomore, Tom B., and Patrick Goode. Austro-Marxism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978.
  Bukey, Evan. Hitler’s Hometown: Linz, Austria, 19081945. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1986.
  Cohen, Gary B. Education and Middle Class Society in Imperial Austria, 18481918. West Lafayette, Ind.: Purdue University Press, 1995.
  Frank, Alison. Oil Empire. Visions of Prosperity in Austrian Galicia. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2005.
  Gerschenkron, Alexander. An Economic Spurt That Failed. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1977.
  Good, David. The Economic Rise of the Habsburg Empire, 17501914. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984.
  Good, David, Margarete Grandner, and Mary Jo Maynes, eds. Austrian Women in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries: Cross-disciplinary Perspectives. New York: Berghahn, 1996.
  Hamann, Brigitte. Hitler’s Vienna: A Dictator’s Apprenticeship. New York: Oxford, 1999.
  Helleiner, Karl F. Free Trade and Frustration: AngloAustrian Negotiations 18601870. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1973.
  Jenks, William. Vienna and the Young Hitler. New York: Columbia University Press, 1960.
  Komlos, John. The Habsburg Monarchy as a Customs Union: Economic Development in AustriaHungary in the Nineteenth Century. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1983.
  ———, ed. Economic Development in the Habsburg Monarchy in the Nineteenth Century. Boulder, Colo.: East European Monographs, 1983.
  Kornberg, Jacques. Theodor Herzl: From Assimilation to Zionism. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1993.
  Pauley, Bruce. From Prejudice to Persecution: A History of Austrian AntiSemitism. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1992.
  Rotenberg, Robert. Landscape and Power in Vienna. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995.
  Rozenblit, Marsha. The Jews of Vienna, 18671914: Assimilation and Identity. Albany.: State University of New York Press, 1983.
  Rudolph, Richard L. Banking and Industrialization in AustriaHungary: The Role of Banks in the Industrialization of the Czech Crownlands, 18731914. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976.
  Sugar, Peter F. Industrialization of BosniaHercegovina, 18781918. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1963.
  Vyleta, Daniel. Crime, Jews and News: Vienna 18951914. New York: Berghahn, 2007.
  Wegs, J. Robert. Growing Up Working Class: Continuity and Change among Viennese Youth, 18901938. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1989.
  Wistrich, Robert S. The Jews of Vienna in the Age of Franz Joseph. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.
  ———, ed. Austrians and Jews in the Twentieth Century: From Franz Joseph to Waldheim. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1992.
   X. THE HISTORY OF AUSTRIA FROM 1918 TO 1945
   1. General
  Bruckmüller, Ernst. The Austrian Nation. Translated by Lowell A. Bangerter. Riverside, Calif.: Ariadne, 2003.
  Carsten, Francis L. The First Austrian Republic 19181938. Aldershot, UK: Gower, 1986.
  Gulick, Charles A. Austria: From Habsburg to Hitler. 2 vols. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1981. Reprint.
  Stadler, Karl R. The Birth of the Austrian Republic. Leyden: A.W. Sijthoff, 1966.
  Weinzierl, Erica, and Kurt Skalnik, eds. Österreich 19181938: Geschichte der Ersten Republik. 2 vols. Graz: Styria, 1983.
   2. Cultural
  Baker, Gordon. Wittgenstein, Frege and the Vienna Circle. Oxford: Blackwell, 1988.
  Dassanowsky, Robert von. Austrian Cinema: A History. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 2004.
  Daviau, Donald, ed. Austrian Writers and the Anschluss: Understanding the PastOvercoming the Past. Riverside, Calif: Ariadne, 1991.
  Kohl, Katrin, and Ritchie Robertson, eds. A History of Austrian Literature 19182000. Rochester, N.Y.: Camden House, 2006.
  Luft, David S. Eros and Inwardness in Vienna: Weininger, Musil, Doderer. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003.
  ———. Robert Musil and the Crisis of European Culture, 18801942. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980.
  Papanek, Ernst. The Austrian School Reform: Its Bases, Principles and DevelopmentThe Twenty Years between the World Wars. New York: Frederick Fell, 1962.
  Perle, George. The Operas of Alban Berg. 2 vols. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980–1985.
  Pyrah, Robert. The Burgtheater and Austrian Identity: Theater and Cultural Politics in Vienna, 19181938. London: Legenda, 2007.
  Runngaldier, Edmund. Carnap’s Early Conventionalism: An Inquiry into the Historical Background of the Vienna Circle. Amsterdam: Rodpoi, 1984.
  Segar, Kenneth, and John Warren, eds. Austria in the Thirties: Culture and Politics. Riverside, Calif: Ariadne, 1991.
  Steinberg, Michael. The Meaning of the Salzburg Festival: Austria as Theater and Ideology 18901938. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1990.
  Textor, Mark., ed. The Austrian Contribution to Analytic Philosophy. London: Routledge, 2006.
  Williams, C. E. The Broken Eagle: The Politics of Austrian Literature from Empire to Anschluss. New York: Barnes & Noble, 1974.
  Zeps, Michael. Education and the Crisis of the First Republic. Boulder, Colo: East European Monographs, 1987.
   3. Diplomatic/Military
  Dixon, Joe C. Defeat and Disarmament: Allied Diplomacy and the Politics of Military Affairs in Austria, 19181922. Newark: University of Delaware Press, 1986.
  Eisterer, Klaus, and Günter Bischof, eds. Austria and Latin America in the 19th and 20th Centuries. Innsbruck: Studien Verlag, 2006.
  Gehl, Jürgen. Austria, Germany, and the Anschluss, 19311938. London: Oxford University Press, 1963.
  Katzenstein, Peter. Disjoined Partners: Austria and Germany since 1815. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976.
  Keyserlingk, Robert H. Austria in World War II: An AngloAmerican Dilemma. Kingston, ON: Queens University Press, 1988.
  Low, Alfred D. The Anschluss Movement, 19181919, and the Paris Peace Conference. Philadelphia, Pa.: American Philosophical Society, 1974.
  Luza, Radomir. AustroGerman Relations in the Anschluss Era. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1975.
  Rusinow, Dennison I. Italy’s Austrian Heritage, 19191946. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1969.
  Sully, Melanie A. Continuity and Change in Austrian Socialism: The Eternal Quest for the Third Way. Boulder, Colo: East European Monographs, 1982.
  Suval, Stanley. The Anschluss Question in the Weimar Era: A Study of Nationalism in Germany and Austria, 19181932. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1974.
   4. Political
  Black, Peter. Ernst Kaltenbrunner: Ideological Soldier of the Third Reich. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press, 1984.
  Brook-Sheperd, Gordon. Dollfuss. London: Macmillan, 1961.
  Carsten, F. L. Fascist Movements in Austria from Schönerer to Hitler. London: Sage, 1977.
  Diamant, Alfred. Austrian Catholics and the First Republic, 19181934. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1960.
  Edmondson, C. Earl. The Heimwehr and Austrian Politics, 19181936. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1978.
  Friedenreich, Harriet Pass. Jewish Politics in Vienna, 19181938. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1991.
  Ganglmair, Siegwald. Resistance and Persecution in Austria, 19381945. Vienna: Federal Press Service, 1988.
  Goldner, Franz. Die österreichische Emigration 19381945. Vienna: Herold, 1945.
  Jeffery, Charlie. Social Democracy in the Austrian Provinces: Beyond Red Vienna. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1995.
  Kindermann, Gottfried-Karl. Hitler’s Defeat in Austria, 19331934: Europe’s First Containment of Nazi Expansionism. Translated by Sonia Brough and David Tayler. Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 1988.
  Kitchen, Martin. The Coming of Austrian Fascism. Toronto: McGill University Press, 1980.
  Klemperer, Klemens von. Ignaz Seipel: Christian Statesman in a Time of Crisis. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1972.
  Lewis, Jill. Fascism and the Working Class in Austria, 19181934: The Failure of Labour in the First Republic. New York: Berg, 1991.
  Luza, Radomir. The Resistance in Austria, 19381945. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1984.
  Maass, Walter B. Assassination in Vienna. New York: Scribner’s, 1972.
  ———. Country without a Name: Austria under Nazi Rule, 19381945. New York: Ungar, 1979.
  MacDonald, Mary. The Republic of Austria, 19181934: A Study in the Failure of Democratic Government. London: Oxford University Press, 1946.
  Maimann, Helene. Politik im Wartesaal: Österreichische Exilpolitik in Großbritannien 1938 bis 1945. Vienna: Böhlau, 1975.
  Molden, Fritz. Fires in the Night: The Sacrifices and Significance of the Austrian Resistance, 19381945. Translated by Harry Zohn. Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 1989.
  Parkinson, Fred, ed. Conquering the Past: Austrian Nazism Yesterday and Today. Detroit, Mich.: Wayne State University Press, 1989.
  Pauley, Bruce F. Hitler and the Forgotten Nazis. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1981.
  Snyder, Timothy. The Red Prince: The Secret Lives of a Habsburg Archduke. New York: Basic Books, 2008.
  Swanson, John. Remnants of the Habsburg Monarchy: The Shaping of Modern Austria and Hungary, 19181922. Boulder, Colo.: East European Monographs, 2001.
  Valiani, Leo. The End of AustriaHungary. London: Secker and Warburg, 1973.
  Wagner, Dieter, and Gerhard Tomkowitz. Anschluss: The Week That Hitler Seized Vienna. Translated by Geoffrey Strachan. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1971.
   5. Social/Economic
  Gruber, Helmut. Red Vienna: Experiment in Working Class Culture 1919 1934. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991.
  Kirk, Tim. Nazism and the Working Class in Austria: Industrial Unrest and Political Dissent in theNational Community”. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
  März, Eduard. Austrian Banking and Financial Policy: Creditanstalt at a Turning Point, 19121923. Translated by Charles Kessler. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1985.
  Rabinbach, Anson. The Crisis of Austrian Socialism. From Red Vienna to Civil War 19271934. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1983.
  ———, ed. The Austrian Socialist Experiment. Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 1985.
  Ránki, György. Economy and Foreign Policy: The Struggle of the Great Powers for Hegemony in the Danube Valley, 19191939. Boulder, Colo.: East European Monographs, 1983.
  Rozenblit, Marsha L. Reconstructing a National Identity: The Jews of Habsburg Austria during World War I. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.
  Rothschild, K. W. Austria’s Economic Development between the Two Wars. London: Frederick Muller, 1947.
  Schubert, Aurel. The Credit-Anstalt Crisis of 1931. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.
  Teichova, Alice, and P. L. Cottrell, eds. International Business and Central Europe, 19181939. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1984.
  Vaughn, Karin. Austrian Economics in America: The Migration of a Tradition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.
   XI. THE HISTORY OF AUSTRIA FROM 1945 TO THE PRESENT
   1. General
  Bauer, Robert A., ed. The Austrian Solution. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1982.
  Bischof, Günter, and Anton Pelinka, eds. Austria in the New Europe. Contemporary Austrian Studies, 1. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers, 1993.
  ———. The Kreisky Era in Austria. Contemporary Austrian Studies, 2. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers, 1994.
  ———, with Rolf Steininger, eds. Austria in the Nineteen Fifties. Contemporary Austrian Studies, 3. New Brunswick, N.J.:Transaction Publishers, 1995.
  ———. Austro-corporatism. Past, Present, Future. Contemporary Austrian Studies, 4. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction, 1996.
  ———. Austrian Historical Memory and National Identity. Contemporary Austrian Studies. 5. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction, 1997.
  ———. Women in Austria. Contemporary Austrian Studies, 6. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction, 1998.
  Kurt, Luther, and Peter Pulzer, eds. Austria 19451955. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 1998.
  Sully, Melanie A. A Contemporary History of Austria. London: Routledge, 1990.
  Steiner, Kurt, ed. Modern Austria. Palo Alto, Calif.: SPOSS, 1981.
  ———, ed. Tradition and Innovation in Contemporary Austria. Palo Alto, Calif.: SPOSS, 1983.
  Wright, William E., ed. Austria 19381988: Anschluss and Fifty Years. Riverside, Calif.: Ariadne, 1995.
  ———, ed. Austria since 1945. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1982.
   2. Cultural
  Bachem, Michael. Heimito von Doderer. Boston: Twayne, 1981.
  Best, Alan, and Hans Wolfschütz, eds. Modern Austrian Writing: Literature and Society after 1945. London: Wolff, 1980.
  Demetz, Peter. After the Fires: Recent Writing in the Germanies, Austria, and Switzerland. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovic, 1986.
  Grabovszki, Ernst, and James Hardin, eds. Literature in Vienna at the Turn of the Centuries: Continuities and Discontinuities around 1900 and 2000. Rochester, N.Y.: Camden House, 2003.
  Wagnleitner, Reinhold. Coca-Colonization and the Cold War: The Cultural Mission of the United States in Austria after the Second World War. Translated by Diana M. Wolf. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1994.
  Lamb-Faffelberger, Margarete, ed. Literature, Film, and the Culture Industry in Contemporary Austria. New York: Peter Lang, 2002.
  Riemer, Willy, ed. After Postmodernism: Austrian Literature and Film in Transition. Riverside, Calif.: Ariadne, 2000.
   3. Diplomatic/Military
  Allard, Sven. Russia and the Austrian State Treaty. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1970.
  Bader, William. Austria between East and West, 19451955. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1966.
  Barker, Thomas. Social Revolutionaries and Secret Agents: The Carinthian Slovene Partisans and Britain’s Special Operations Executive. Boulder, Colo.: East European Monographs, 1990.
  Bischof, Günter. Austria in the First Cold War, 19451955: The Leverage of the Weak. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1999.
  Clute, Robert E. The International Legal Status of Austria. The Hague: Nijhoff, 1962.
  Cronin, Audrey Kurth. Great Power Politics and the Struggle over Austria, 19451955. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1986.
  Grayson, Cary Travers, Jr. Austria’s International Position 19381953. Geneva: Droz, 1953.
  Hagelin, Bjorn. Neutrality and Foreign Military Sales: Military Production and Sales Restrictions in Austria, Finland, Sweden, and Switzerland. Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 1990.
  Höll, Otmar, ed. Small States in Europe and Dependence. Vienna: Braumüller, 1983.
  Neuhold, Hanspeter, and Hans Thalberg, eds. The European Neutrals in International Affairs. Vienna: Braumüller, 1984.
  ———, ed. The European Neutrals in the 1990s: New Challenges and Opportunities. Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 1992.
  Pelinka, Anton. Austria: Out of the Shadow. Boulder, Colo: Westview 1998.
  Riekhoff, Harald von, and Hanspeter Neuhold, eds. Unequal Partners: A Comparative Analysis of the Relations Between Austria and the Federal Republic of Germany and Between Canada and the United States. Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 1993.
  Schlesinger, Thomas O. Austrian Neutrality in Postwar Europe: The Domestic Roots of a Foreign Policy. Vienna: Braumüller, 1972.
  Stearman, William Lloyd. The Soviet Union and the Occupation of Austria. Bonn: Verlag für Zeitgeschichte, 1961.
  Toscano, Mario. Alto Adige-South Tyrol: Italy’s Frontier with the German World. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1976.
  Verdross, Alfred. The Permanent Neutrality of Austria. Vienna: Verlag für Geschichte und Politik, 1978.
  Wagnleitner, Reinhold, ed. Understanding Austria: The Political Reports and Analyses of Martin F. Herz, Political Officer of the US Legation in Vienna 19451948. Quellen zur Geschichte des 19. und 20. Jahrhundert, 4. Salzburg: Neugebauer Verlag, 1984.
  Witnah, Donald R., and Edgar L. Erickson. The American Occupation of Austria: Planning and Early Years. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1985.
  Witnah, Donald R., Edgar L. Erickson, and Florentine E. Witnah. Salzburg under Siege: U.S. Occupation, 19451955. New York: Greenwood, 1991.
   4. Political
  Alcock, Antony E. The History of the South Tyrol Question. Geneva: Michael Joseph, 1970.
  Bassett, Richard. Waldheim and Austria. New York: Penguin, 1989.
  Bluhm, William T. Building an Austrian Nation: The Political Integration of a Western State. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1973.
  Fitzmaurice, John. Austrian Politics and Society Today: In Defence of Austria. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1991.
  Herzstein, Robert E. Waldheim: The Missing Years. New York: Arbor House, 1988. Reissued, New York: Paragon House, 1989.
  Höbelt, Lothar. Defiant Populist: Jörg Haider and the Politics of Austria. West Lafayette, Ind.: Purdue University Press, 2003
  Lauber, Volkmar. Contemporary Austrian Politics. Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 1996.
  Mitten, Richard. The Politics of Antisemitic Prejudice: The Waldheim Phenomenon in Austria Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1992.
  Pelinka, Anton, and Fritz Plesser, eds. The Austrian Party System. Boulder, Colo: Westview, 1989.
  Riedlsperger, Max Ernst. The Lingering Shadow of Nazism: The Austrian Independent Party Movement since 1945. Boulder, Colo.: East European Quarterly, 1978.
  Shell, Kurt L. The Transformation of Austrian Socialism. New York: State University of New York Publishers, 1962.
  Steiner, Kurt. Politics in Austria. Boston: Little, Brown, 1972.
  Stourzh, Gerald. Geschichte des Staatsvertrages 19451955: Österreichs Weg zur Neutralität. 3rd ed. Graz: Styria, 1985.
  Sully, Melanie A. Political Parties and Elections in Austria: The Search for Stability. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1981.
  Peter Thaler. The Ambivalence of Identity: The Austrian Experience of Nation-Building in a Modern Society. West Lafayette, Ind.: Purdue University Press, 2000.
   5. Social/Economic
  Arndt, Sven W., ed. The Political Economy of Austria. Washington, D.C.: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, 1982.
  Bunzl, Matti. Jews and Queers: Symptoms of Modernity in Late-Twentieth Century Vienna. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004
  Gross, Inge. Disparities of Living Conditions among Women and Men in Austria: Statistical Analysis. Vienna: Austrian Federal Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs, 1989.
  Katzenstein, Peter J. Corporatism and Change: Austria, Switzerland, and the Politics of Industry. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1984.
  Keizer, Willem, Bert Tieben, and Rudy van Zijp, eds. Austrian Economics in Debate. London: Routledge, 1997.
  Laursen, Finn, ed. EFTA and the EC: Implications of 1992. Maastricht: European Institute of Public Administration, 1990.
  Powell, G. Bingham, Jr. Social Fragmentation and Political Hostility: An Austrian Case Study. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1970.
  Richter, Sándor. The Economic Relations of Austria, Finland, Yugoslavia, and Hungary with the Soviet Union: A Comparative Analysis. Vienna: Vienna Institute for Comparative Economic Studies, 1989.

Historical dictionary of Austria. . 2014.

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  • Bibliography — (from Greek gr. βιβλιογραφία, bibliographia , literally book writing ), as a practice, is the academic study of books as physical, cultural objects; in this sense, it is also known as bibliology (from Greek gr. λογία, logia ). On the whole,… …   Wikipedia

  • Bibliography — Bib li*og ra*phy (b[i^]b l[i^]*[o^]g r[.a]*f[y^]) n.; pl. {Bibliographies}. [Gr. bibliografi a: cf. F. bibliographie.] 1. a history or description of books and manuscripts, with notices of the different editions, the times when they were printed …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • bibliography — 1670s, the writing of books, from Gk. bibliographia the writing of books, from BIBLIO (Cf. biblio ) + graphos (something) drawn or written. Sense of a list of books that form the literature of a subject is first attested 1869. Related:… …   Etymology dictionary

  • bibliography — ► NOUN (pl. bibliographies) 1) a list of books or documents on a particular subject or by a particular author. 2) the study of books in terms of their classification, printing, and publication. 3) a list of the books referred to in a scholarly… …   English terms dictionary

  • bibliography — [bib΄lē äg′rə fē] n. pl. bibliographies [Gr bibliographia: see BIBLIO & GRAPHY] 1. the study of the editions, dates, authorship, etc. of books and other writings 2. a book containing such information 3. a list of sources of information on a given …   English World dictionary

  • BIBLIOGRAPHY — As in general bibliography, the development of Hebrew bibliography is characterized by the transition from brief listings to more detailed catalogues. The listing of the books of the Bible which appears in the Talmud (BB 14b, 15a) had as its… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • bibliography — bibliographic /bib lee euh graf ik/, bibliographical, adj. bibliographically, adv. /bib lee og reuh fee/, n., pl. bibliographies. 1. a complete or selective list of works compiled upon some common principle, as authorship, subject, place of… …   Universalium

  • Bibliography —    Internet Sites    Dictionaries and Bibliographies of Sacred Music    Biographies of musicians    Bibliography: Byzantine and Orthodox    Discographies    Important collections of music    INTRODUCTION    Because the entri …   Historical dictionary of sacred music

  • Bibliography —  INTRODUCTION  ■ The chief problem in compiling a bibliography on Marxism is the sheer volume of sources. The literature produced by and about Marxists, Marxist organizations, movements and regimes is vast. This abundance of material testifies to …   Historical dictionary of Marxism

  • Bibliography —   INTRODUCTION   The imposing number of books and articles that have been published in recent years about the Holocaust has made it necessary to prioritize the literature in regard to significance. As a consequence, a bibliography of the… …   Historical dictionary of the Holocaust

  • Bibliography —    I. INTRODUCTION    The bibliography is arranged by classes and subclasses. With very few exceptions, only works published after 1945 have been included. For historical works, one should consult George Black s A Gypsy Bibliography (Edinburgh:… …   Historical dictionary of the Gypsies


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